Introduction ~ The Nasturtium is in full flower in my yard at this time of year (July/August).
Common Name/Scientific Name & Family ~ The Latin name is Tropaeolum majus, and it is from the Family Tropaeolaceae, the Nasturtium. The name Tropaeolum is from the word trophy. Linnaeus named it from the Latin word, which was defined “as a sign of victory in war helmets from captured warriors who were once hung on posts.” The leaves of the plant climbing posts are compared to the shields and the flowers to the bloodstained helmets. The plant first arrived in Spain in 1569 thanks to Spanish botanist Nicolás Monardes, who wrote extensively about all the plants and animals he discovered during his trip to South America. The name Tropaeolum majus was given to the plant by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus.
Other Names and background ~ The common name of Indian Cress from its pungent flavor of leaves is like name-related watercress (N. Officinale). These are two different plants from two very separate families.
General Description of Plant habitat and Growth ~ This plant is native to Peru, South America. It has big edible leaves, brilliant and edible flowers. It is an easy plant to grow and does best if not over-watered or over-fertilized. It will grow in full sun and part-shade and climbs up the nearest fence or plant. The flowers mature, fall off, and the seed pods form. These pods can be collected and immersed in vinegar and make a tasty substitute for capers.
Seeds and Leaves – The seeds yield a high percentage of a drying oil that can be used in making paints, varnish, etc. The growing plant attracts aphids away from other plants. Research indicates that aphids flying over plants with orange or yellow flowers do not stop, nor do they prey on plants growing next to or above the flowers. An insecticide can be made from an infusion of leaves and soap flakes.
Countries of Origin ~ Native to South America
Endangered – Not endangered
PORTION OF PLANT USED IN EXTRACTION – The entire plant can be used: leaves, flowers, seed pods. It is sometimes used as a flower essence remedy and in homeopathy and in various other forms of alternative therapy.
GENERAL PROPERTIES of Nasturtium
Physical Uses ~ Nasturtium has long been used in Andean herbal medicine as a disinfectant and wound-healing herb and an expectorant to relieve chest conditions.
All parts of the plant appear to be antibiotic; an infusion of the leaves can be drunk to increase resistance to bacterial infections and clear nasal and bronchial catarrh. The remedy seems to both reduce catarrh formation and stimulate the clearing and coughing up of phlegm.
The leaves are antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, aperient, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, laxative, and stimulant.
Application and Skincare ~ Externally, it makes an effective antiseptic wash and is used to treat baldness, minor injuries, and skin eruptions. Any plant part can be used; it is harvested during the growing season and used fresh. …http://www.pfaf.org/database/
Emotional Use ~ A essence is made of flowers and used as a tonic for the lower body organs to energize and bring hope after a significant loss and life changes. This flower remedy was made in the Spring when it brings forth new life after the Winter season. Nasturtium brings hope after a significant loss, upheaval, or life change. The yellow, orange and red colors of the flowers relate to the three lower chakras. It also reflects the cleansing of the bright inner star that you are, removing the dross accumulating over many lifetimes, so you can shine more brightly. –FlowersforHealing.com
FLOWER REMEDY ~ AS a flower remedy or elixir, “Nasturtium is said to bring in more joy and spontaneity and to be used whenever life starts to feel dull or routine. Nasturtium helps us add more spice to life.” ‑ Lotuswei Nasturtium will enhance a feeling of contentment and happiness. It also helps you see where and how you are unique.
CULINARY OR INGESTION ~ All parts of the plant can be eaten. Nasturtium flowers contain mustard seed oil, so flowers and young fruits can be used for seasoning and pickling, leaves can be used for a peppery taste in salads. These green seeds can also be pickled in vinegar, flowers, and seeds can be mashed into sweet butter for a tasty spread. The flowers can be used as a wrap to roll around small canapes as an appetizer.
HERBAL ~ All parts of the plant appear to have antibiotic effects. Nasturtium has long been used in Andean herbal medicine as a disinfectant and wound-healing herb and an expectorant to relieve chest conditions.
The flowers are used in bath herbs mixtures as a colorful astringent, in hair rinses for dark blonde to red hair; the leaves and flowers can be used in bath herbs or teas and salads for a tasty ‘bite.’ I also like to collect and dry the flowers to add color to a potpourri. Hummingbirds sip from the flowers.
An infusion of the leaves can increase resistance to bacterial infections and clear nasal and bronchial catarrh. This remedy seems to both reduce catarrh formation and stimulate the clearing and coughing up of phlegm.
The seeds yield a high percentage of a drying oil that can be used in making paints, varnish, etc. And Nasturtium can be used as a trap crop for aphids.
HYDROSOL ~ I have never had a hydrosol of Nasturtium flower or leaves and wonder what it might be like. I think the best use of Nasturtiums is as a garden and culinary plant.
Key Use ~ As a food.
Chemistry and Components ~ A glycoside found in the plant reacts with water to produce an antibiotic. The plant has antibiotic properties towards aerobic spore-forming bacteria. Extracts from the plant have anticancer activity. The plant is taken internally to treat genito-urinary diseases, respiratory infections, scurvy, and poor skin and hair conditions.
INTERESTING/SCIENCE/HISTORICAL ~ Nasturtium is symbolic of patriotism. … The round leaves reminded Linnaeus of the shields of warriors and the flowers of their blood-stained helmets, hence the symbolism of patriotism.
The true pink Carnation (gillyflower or clove-pink) Dianthus caryophyllus was my wedding flower in 1972. It is a flower of fascination, scent, and love. The flower is edible and is used to scent and flavor many foods.
CARNATION, Gillyflower, Clove-pink)
Research by Jeanne Rose 1970 – to the present
DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS, CARNATION OR CLOVE PINK
Absolute of Carnation
Carnation absolute is an amber-colored liquid sometimes a greenish-brown viscous liquid with an herbaceous, bitter-honey-like, and spicy back note and a bitter taste. In natural perfumery is used in floral blends (rose, lily, narcissus, jonquil, Cassie, white ginger, honeysuckle), spice accords, etc. There is any intensity of the odor that is best expressed when a drop of spicy clove oil plus a drop or two of sweet cinnamon oils is added and it is diluted with 95% grape spirits and allowed to age for several weeks.
These were photographed in Golden Gate Park in 2016.
Pinks have a sweet and spicy fragrance and charming, frilled flowers.
These are the Organoleptic (Sensory) and Odor Characteristics of Carnation Absolute (Description of color, clarity, viscosity, taste & intensity of Odor.
Dark rich brown, sometimes green
Works well with many florals, fruity, citrus and wood scents
Has a rich tenacity and presence in a perfume
Organoleptics of Carnation absolute 2021
Odor description ~ The odor of Carnation absolute is absolutely unlike any Carnation, gillyflower, or sops-in-wine that I have ever smelled. It is dark and dank and needs to be fluffed up with spicy clove and sweet cinnamon to work in a perfume.
CARNATION ABSOLUTE PROFILE
By Jeanne Rose from my original 1969 notes and old books
Carnation – abs … Portion of Plant Used in Distillation, How Distilled, Extraction Methods & Yield ~ Dianthus caryophyllus, the common garden carnation flowers are extracted with solvents and the result is a hard, green concrète then washed in alcohol for the absolute. In France and in many books, it is called ‘absolue d’œillet’. The brown viscous liquid was sweet-scented of honey, spice, and herbs, somewhat like the flower. This scent mixed well with other floral notes and fixatives such as Castoreum and Oakmoss. This product was produced in Europe. My original bottles have a more representative scent of Carnation flowers of old, rather than what is grown today.
Name of Oil ~Carnation absolute (Dianthus caryophyllus)
Carnation probably comes from the Italian dialectal carnagione (flesh color) from the Late Latin word carnationem. Carnations were mentioned in Greek literature 2,000 years ago. Dianthus was coined by Greek botanist Theophrastus and is derived from the Greek words for divine dios and for flower anthos. Some scholars believe that the name carnation comes from coronation or corone (flower garlands), as it was one of the flowers used in Greek ceremonial crowns. Others think the name stems from the Latin carnis (flesh), which refers to the original color of the flower, or incarnation of God made flesh. In Romanian, the word for carnation is garoafa, it is also surnamed “flower of royalty”.1
These plants that we love so well are called Pinks, Carnations, Sweet William, or Dianthus. They vary according to the variety wanted, or the breeder decided to grow.
Countries of Origin ~ Natives of Europe, the absolute produced in France, Egypt, and Holland.
This is an old ‘sops in wine’ from the Fenbow garden of Elizabethan times, as described in the book “Old Carnations and Pinks” by C. Oscar Moreton.
The Nutmeg Clove Carnation from “Old Carnations and Pinks” by C. Oscar Moreton
GENERAL DESCRIPTION ~ THE BOTANY OF CARNATION
Carnations are flowers that are widely recognized by most people. They are classified as Dianthus caryophyllus, when translated, means “flower of love” or “flower of the gods”. There are approximately 300 species in the genus. They are native to the Eastern Hemisphere and are found naturally in the Mediterranean region, although modern varieties are grown both in greenhouses and in fields around the world. With such widespread commercial production available, there is not a limited season of availability. Because of their long-lasting qualities and fragrance, carnations are often featured in arrangements at holidays celebrated with flowers, at special occasions such as weddings and parties, and in sympathy arrangements.
Essential carnation oil in its absolute form is both rare and expensive. Many varieties produce a clove-like scent, and the aroma is said to be both uplifting and motivating. It was called ‘Clove-Pink”. Carnations and other flowers such as Stocks were also called Gillyflowers and Girofle. Not only are people attracted by their scent, but carnations also have an extended vase life from 7 to 21 days depending on the cultivar, harvest stage and flower food.
>>Many of the commercially produced varieties have flowers up to 3 inches in diameter and have very little odor. Colors especially red colors are on the same chemical pathway as scent. So, the more color or complexity of color often the less scent. Most flowers are double forms with ruffled petals. Remember that the same chemical pathways carry scent and color; if you breed for color and size, you will have less scent.<<<
CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF THE OIL- ISOEUGENOL ACETATE. Carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) are popular ornamentals and are mainly used as cut flowers. Their scents are composed of benzenoids, terpenoids, fatty acid derivatives, and other minor components (Clery et al., 1999; Hudak and Thompson, 1997; Schade et al., 2001; Zuker et al., 2002). Classical fragrant carnations possess a spicy and clove-like odor caused mainly by benzenoids (Clery et al., 1999).2
HISTORICAL USES OF THE OIL AND THE HERB
In Odorographia, p. 260 The perfume of cloves blended with a trace of that of methyl-salicylate (wintergreen oil) or a compound organic ether, is conspicuous in several species of Dianthus or ” Pink “: Plants belonging to the extensive order Caryophyllaceae. Most of the species are natives of Europe, temperate Asia, and North Africa. Dianthus Caryophyllus or ” Clove Pink ” is the original of the garden Carnation.
According to a Christian legend, “Carnations first appeared on Earth as Jesus carried the Cross. The Virgin Mary shed tears at Jesus’ plight, and Carnations sprang up from where her tears fell” pink Carnation becoming the symbol of a mother’s undying love1. The history of the flower is fascinating. It was called ‘sops in wine”
HISTORY ~Gillyflower. any of several scented flowering plants, especially the carnation, or clove pink (Dianthus caryophyllus), stock (Matthiola incana), and wallflower (Cheiranthus cheiri). However, the gillyflower of Chaucer, Spenser, and Shakespeare was the carnation. Other plants that are types of gillyflower are dame’s gillyflower, also known as dame’s violet (Hesperis matronalis); mock gillyflower, also known as soapwort or bouncing bet (Saponaria officinalis); feathered gillyflower, also known as the grass or garden pink (Dianthus plumarius); and sea gillyflower, also known as the thrift or sea pink (Armeria maritima).
To this day, carnations remain a favorite flower choice for many different occasions. They are immediately recognizable flowers, and they possess a charm and allure that continues to captivate people around the globe. In fact, in many parts of the world, the popularity of carnations surpasses that of any other flower including roses. The powerful sentiments these flowers can express are a perfect complement to their classic beauty and long-lasting freshness. By retaining its status as a floral mainstay for such a long time, the carnation has proven itself to be a lasting flower in more ways than one. – Proflowers.com
THERAPEUTIC VALUE OF CARNATION ~ Hilda Leyel mentions that the Carnation has cordial properties and enlivens the heart through the senses. Gerard uses a conserve of the flowers with sugar to comfort the heart. Ms. Leyel continues that the pinks and carnations of all kinds have a cleansing effect on the blood, correct disorders of the head and the heart, and rejoice all the senses by their spicy scent and flavor. A water distillate from pinks was said to be a cure for epilepsy and another says: ‘if a conserve be composed of them this is the life and the delight of humanity’ [this sounds like Gerard is being consulted again].
• • •
CARNATION … PHYSICAL USES AND HOW USEDAPPLICATIONS
The pink is an ornamental plant known. As aromatic species, it follows that its composition must find a very fragrant essence, and indeed it can be found, even in small amounts, different for different varieties of carnations that exist. In the herbaceous plant parts it is also possible to find active saponins and some minor. As for its medicinal uses, there is little to say. There is a plant that is characterized by intense possess medicinal properties because its main job rather falls within the field of perfumery. If it is included here because once the water (hydrosol) was used as eye drops – carnation eyewash – for tired or damaged eyes. This application is a clear example of the theory of the sign: in fact, once the flower the carnation compared it with the eyes, because in the center of it appear certain that resemble paint the apple of the eyes of Hence it was proposed to extract the spirit of carnation, to soothe tired eyes or damaged, and began to prepare distilled water garden carnations. “. …http://www.mtplantas.com/eng/plants/E35153.htm
Emotional/Ritual Uses ~ Clove Pink ~ Dianthus caryophylatta ~ The favorite flower of Henry IV of France and still very much cultivated. This flower was introduced into France by French missionaries and soon assumed a double form in France in 1719. It has a lovely clove-like spicy and floral odor. Pinks and carnations of all kinds can be eaten and have a cleansing effect on the blood, head, and heart. Distill the flowers for a ‘cure’ for epilepsy; the hydrosols and waters can be drunk for nervous disorders. The absolute is a delight when used in small amounts in perfumer. – from Leyel
Interesting Facts ~ So popular were the clove gillyflowers in the 17th and 18th-century that they were used in soup, sauce, syrup, and cordials. The flowers were candied and preserved, made into kinds of vinegar, decorated salads, and always used as sops in wine and floated in the drinks of engaged couples. The actual Carnation known as ‘sops in wine’ or the clove gillyflower was a particular variety sometimes dried and powdered, but more often made into syrups and conserves. – from Leyel
From Victoria in Perfume Notes, 2005 – “Dianthus is derived from Greek, meaning di, Zeus and anthos, flower, “the flower of Zeus,” indicating its importance in the religious context of Ancient Greece. In Italy, Bologna in particular, the plant has been associated with Saint Peter and celebrated widely, with a special day at the end of June dedicated to carnation. In the Middle Ages, it was one of the most popular flowers for fragrance gardens. No monastery herb garden would be complete without carnation, the medicinal uses of which were referenced as early as the Han Dynasty texts (23-206 A.D.). In European herbal medicine tradition, carnation flowers have been prescribed for the nervous and coronary disorders. However, its probably most interesting usage has been recorded in the late 1600s, when the Countess of Dorset, England, made her own love potion, including carnation, lavender, bay leaf and marjoram. It is rather ironic that the flower of the most licentious of all Greek gods is supposed to have powers to cure wayward lovers. Interesting to note is that carnation signified devotion and loyalty in a variety of traditions, from European to Asian.”
Nerve Tonic made of Clove July flowers in Mountain wine
3 oz. Clove July flowers Infuse into a quart of Mountain wine for 10 days Shake every day. On the 10th day filter through clean white blotting paper. Drink a wineglassful 3 X/day as a nerve tonic. (a wineglassful is 2 oz) From a Hilda Leyel book
BLENDING & Perfumery ~ Blends well with Ambrette seed EO, CO2 and abs; Basil EO and abs; Bergamot EO; Buddha wood EO and CO2; Cassie abs; Champa flower EO and CO2; Clary sage EO and abs; Coconut CO2; Fir balsam abs; Rose Geranium EO and abs; Genet (Spanish Broom) abs; Hay abs; Jasmine abs; Jonquil abs; Lavender EO, CO2 and abs; Lime EO; Lemon EO; Mandarin and Tangerine EO; Massoia EO and CO2; Neroli EO; Osmanthus abs; Rose abs, CO2 and abs; Sandalwood EO, CO2, and abs; Tonka abs; Vanilla abs and CO2; Ylang EO and abs; Violet leaf abs; and Tuberose abs.
Symbolic Meaning ~ Carnation is love, affection, fascination, and health. I used the Carnation flower on my wedding announcements in 1972.
Carnation Meaning. The carnation means fascination, distinction, and love. According to a Christian legend, carnations grew from the Virgin Mary’s tears as she watched Jesus carry the cross. This is how they became associated with motherly love.
The meanings of carnations include fascination, distinction, and love. Like many other flowers, different messages can also be expressed with the flower’s different color varieties. Light red carnations, for example, are often used to convey admiration, whereas the dark red version expresses deeper sentiments of love and affection. White carnations are associated with purity and luck, and pink carnations are often given as a sign of gratitude. In the early part of the 20th century, carnations became the official flower of Mother’s Day in addition to finding particular significance in many other cultures worldwide. – Proflowers.com
KEY USE ~ The absolute for scent and the flower petals in food and drinks.
•FORMULAS for Perfumes•
Formula for Mock Carnation Scent
WEST OF MIDWAY
Another formula Using Carnation Absolute
…….Alphabetical order …………….IN DROPS ……………………………. IN NOTES
Scientific Papers Series Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development Vol. 18, Issue 2, 2018 PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, E-ISSN 2285-3952 107 RESEARCH ON THE EUROPEAN FLOWER MARKET AND MAIN SYMBOLIC VALUES OF THE MOST TRADED SPECIES
Introduction ~ Ravintsara #163, Cinnamomum camphora, is organically grown and not to be confused with Ravensara. Ravensara (Ravensara aromatica) and Ravintsara (Cinnamomum camphora) are two essential oils distilled from 2 very different trees, often misnamed from two separate botanical family, as well as two different countries. The leaves and wood of the tree are used for different essential oils and often also have different names. It is imperative that all who use essential oils, and any company that sells them, begin to label these oils using both common and scientific name, as well as part of the plant used, and country of origin.
NAMING AND DESCRIPTION ARE CONFUSING.
Naming & Background ~ Cinnamomum camphora, the tree, has different oils with different names depending upon whether you are talking about leaves or wood and whether you are discussing the tree from Madagascar or elsewhere. The leaves of the tree from Madagascar, CT cineole, are called Ravintsara and they are used in products as an application for fatigue, and postpartum infections. The essential oil from the leaves/stem, and bark has different therapeutic benefits. Often, it seems, when using the term C. camphora, camphor laurel, we are talking about the tree that grows in China and whose seeds have been studied as an anti-bacterial and whose wood is distilled and releases a solid, white, waxy substance called ‘camphor’.
Names and part and country as follows:
Cinnamomum camphora, CT cineole, leaves, Madagascar is Ravintsara oil
Cinnamomum camphora, CT linalool, leaves, China is Ho leaf oil.
Cinnamomum camphora, CT linalool, wood, China is Ho Wood oil
Cinnamomum camphora, CT linalool, wood and leaves, China is Shiu oil
Cinnamomum camphora, CT camphor, wood, China is called white camphor, yellow camphor, and other names.
Ravensara aromatica, CT methyl eugenol, leaves, Madagascar is Ravensara or Hazomanitra oil.
Sometimes the leaves are picked with stems and when distilled, have that anise-scent of R. aromatica type anisata, bark, Madagascar is called Anise wood oil, and called Ravensara anisata. –– this from Material review 2005 [https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Hector-
Also, some scientific sources call this tree and another, Ravenala madagascariensis which is family Strelitziaceae, a palm-type tree. There is much confusion and Ravensara aromatica (the old name) is still confusing in the literature. Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn. (Family STRELITZIACEAE), a palm tree whose leaves are used for asthma and the stem used for hypertension.
I remember these essential oils by scent and even that has changed over the years.
Family ~ Family Lauraceae – Cinnamomum camphora – Ravintsara. The essential oil of leaves, Cineole type, from the Madagascar tree is commercially known as ravintsara. The leaves are steam-distilled and depending upon terroir there are different chemical families represented. The main ones are linalool and cineole. This tree with a common name of Camphor laurel has different names depending upon the six different chemical variants called chemotypes. These are camphor, linalool, 1,8-cineole, nerolidol, safrole, and borneol.
Countries of Origin ~ Ravintsara is a product of Madagascar.
Endangered – Probably, it depends upon to whom you are speaking and what plant and plant part they are discussing. Even in the scientific literature, often the plant part being discussed is missing as evidenced from many articles in the literature as well as any book discussing essential oils.
If you are using the leaves only of the R. aromatica, the tree itself is not endangered; however, if you are using the bark of this same tree [but called R. anisata], this tree is endangered.
General Description of Plant habitat and Growth and Confusion ~ I am unable to provide a proper description of the tree, only that at this writing this essential oil still causes confusion. “Obtained from the leaves of a tree (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl), which was introduced from Taiwan as an ornamental tree and now grown widely in Madagascar and with increased demand from the international market. This essential oil has often been misreported and traded as ravensara, or Ravensara aromatica. The true ravensara (R. aromatica) essential oil is extracted from the leaves of an endemic species locally known as “havozo,’ or “hazomanitra, which means “aromatic tree” in the Malagasy language.”1
“Another source of confusion with Ravensara species is that R. aromatica and R. anisata (a synonym for R. aromatica) were considered different species producing different essential oils, whereas the plants were one and the same. Both essential oils come from the same plant, but the oil of R. anisata usually refers to the bark oil of R. aromatica (rich in methyl chavicol), while the essential oil of the true R. aromatica is extracted from the leaves. The species that was first described by Sonnerat was further renamed as R. anisata by Danguy.”2
PORTION OF PLANT USED IN EXTRACTION AND YIELDS ~ Ravintsara Essential Oil is steam distilled from leaves of Cinnamomum camphora CT cineole in Madagascar during the months of September through December. The bark yields another product. Always carefully analyze the odor of the essential oil as there are certainly different grades and scents. Wood, leaf, bark produce different essential oil by SD. See above.
Yield ~ I was unable to find the specific yield of essential oil of leaf of Cinnamomum camphora from Madagascar.
The chemical composition of R. aromatica bark is in all cases characterized by a high amount of methyl chavicol (83–98%), whatever the chemotype.
ORGANOLEPTICS ~ The organoleptic, physical, and chemical profiles of the essential oils of ravintsara (C. camphora) and ravensara (R. aromatica) oils showed that both essential oils can also easily be differentiated using chemical fingerprinting. It has been proposed that new standards for their botanical and essential oil authentication and species identification be written.
Color – colorless Clarity – clear Viscosity non-viscous Scent Intensity – 6 Taste – bitter and aromatic
Tenacity – very good Description of scent – The leaf oil is herbaceous, woody, spicy, and green and more suitable to therapeutics than perfumery. Aroma Description – Ravintsara has an odor much like Eucalyptus due to the same chemical component of Cineol. It is pleasant and refreshing, fruity, herbaceous, and spicy. Waft the scent enough times to remember it by its odor.
GENERAL PROPERTIES of Ravintsara CT cineole
Properties of Ravintsara ~ This essential oil is considered anticatarrhal, decongestant, and expectorant. It is helpful and useful for rhinitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, and sinusitis (by inhalation).
BLENDING RAVINTSARA FOR PURPOSE ~ This robust and pleasant oil is best used in blends for the respiratory system and in massage blends, to refresh and uplift the body. It blends well with herbaceous oils such as Rosemary and Marjoram, the citrus oils such as Lemon and Bergamot, and spicy oils. Included in this list are some resins and some grasses such as Frankincense and Palmarosa. Try very tiny amounts in perfumery to make the perfume sparkle.
>Formula for rhinitis ~ For perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR), the essential oils of Ravintsara, Geranium, (Pelargonium graveolens), Eucalyptus and Niaouli, used together, release their decongestant, tonic, and anti-infectious properties, and can be used in a base of saline solution and rosemary hydrosol, and provide great benefits in case of a blocked nose, (loss of sense of smell), and irritation of the ear, nose, throat (ENT) tract.3
1 oz Rosemary hydrosol + 1 oz double strength saline solution* + 3 drops Ravintsara (Cinnamomum camphora, CT cineole, leaves, Madagascar is Ravintsara oil + 1 drop each of (Frankincense or Rose Geranium), Niaouli, and Eucalyptus. Place all in a 2 oz nasal spray bottle, shake vigorously to use.
*[Double strength saline solution is made by bringing to a boil 1 cup of water covered for 15 minutes. Cool to room temperature. Add 1 t. salt and a pinch of baking soda. Stir until dissolved. Store in the refrigerator no more than 2-days.]
>Another formula for rhinitis is the inhalation of a combination of EO that include Sandalwood, Ravensara aromatica, and Frankincense.2
>Sore throat Formula ~ For the beginning of a sore throat, I have used Ravintsara, a drop on a sugar cube, to slowly dissolve in my mouth. I have found this to be very helpful.
HERBAL ~ A tea of the leaves of Cinnamomum camphora in Madagascar is used for fatigue and post-partum infection.
Chemistry and Components ~ We have discussed this in the beginning. It is important for the consumer to look at the GCMS; if you want Ravintsara it must be from Madagascar and have high levels of cineol, 50-70%. The scent will help guide you. I have seen a product called this name (from a well-known essential oil company) that had a high percentage of linalool and that is NOT Ravintsara but Ho Leaf oil.
Key Uses ~ Ravintsara is the oil of the Respiratory system. Just like the citrine in the opening photo, ravintsara is a powerful cleanser.
Searching for the Real Ravensara (Ravensara aromatica Sonn.) Essential Oil. Perfumer & Flavorist, vol. 30, Jan-Feb 2005
“Effect of inhalation of aromatherapy oil on patients with perennial allergic rhinitis: a randomized controlled trial,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2016, Article ID 7896081, 7 pages, 2016.
Countries of Origins ~ Yuzu is believed to have originated in China and grows wild in central China and is well-known in Japan and now grown elsewhere.
General description of Plant habitat and growth ~ Yuzu is believed to be a hybrid of sour mandarin and ichang papeda. The fruit looks like a small rougher-skinned grapefruit (much smaller) with its uneven skin and can be either yellow or green depending on the degree of ripeness. Yuzu fruits, which are very aromatic, typically range between 2+ and 3+ inches in diameter but can be as large as a grapefruit.Yuzu is an acidic citrus from China that is grown as rootstock for other citrus varieties & for its fruit. Fruits are acidic and moderately juicy with pleasant citrus aroma and can be used as a lemon substitute. It is unusual among citrus plants in being relatively frost-hardy, due to its cold-hardy C. ichangensis ancestry, and can be grown in regions with winters at least as low as -9 °C (15 °F) where more sensitive citrus would perish. Harvest fruit when ripe, October through December.
Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields ~ Yuzu peel is both steam-distilled, solvent extracted for the absolute, and cold-pressed. The oil is traditionally extracted from the peel using the cold press technique and contains limonene (up to 77.0%) as a major constituent. However, the steam-distilled oil has no phototoxicity.
Yield ~ The overall mean yield is 0.18%.
Organoleptic Characteristics of Yuzu
Color – colorless to pale yellow for the steam-distilled Clarity – clear Viscosity – non-viscous Intensity of odor – 4-5
Taste – sour, umami, citrus
Tenacity –like other citrus and the unique tenacity lasts more than an hour after application.
Odor Assessment – Yuzu has a fine citrus odor, with fruity and floral subsidiary notes. Refrigerate this oil to keep it fresh smelling.
YUZU GENERAL PROPERTIES
Yuzu has radical-scavenging effects, antioxidant properties and is used in aromatherapy for its fine strong citrus scent.
Application/ Skincare ~ The peel is strongly scented and makes a good addition to blends and in perfumery. The scent is very refreshing. www.PrimaFleur.com. Yuzu in a blend treats the roughness of skin and warms the body.
Diffuse/Diffusion ~ It works well in many sorts of blends as it is invigorating and uplifting emotionally, some use Yuzu energetically as a mood-lifter.
CHEMICAL COMPONENTS of Yuzu ~ “Limonene was the most abundant monoterpene hydrocarbon followed by γ-terpinene and β-phellandrene in Yuzu. The volatile components of yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) cold-pressed oil were analyzed by capillary GC and GC–MS, without prior separation, and compared with those of lemon (Citrus limon Burm. f., cv. Lisbon) grown in Japan. p-Mentha-1,4,8-triene, was newly found among the seventy-seven components identified in the yuzu oil.”1
BLENDS BEST WITH ~ Peel is a good addition to blends when you need astringency and in perfumery for its strong citrus scent. Use as a top note with Bergamot and Lemon.
HYDROSOL of Yuzu is a wonderful fragrant and slightly astringent toner/tonic for skincare. Save it for your facial care and use orange hydrosol for body care. The fragrance is refreshing and relaxing while it adds its astringency to the water.
HERBAL USES ~ YUZU fruit known for its characteristically strong aroma, and the oil from its skin is marketed as a fragrance. In Japan, bathing with yuzu on Tojio, the Winter solstice, is a custom that dates to at least the early 18th century. Whole yuzu fruits are floated in the hot water of the bath, sometimes enclosed in a cloth bag, releasing their aroma. The fruit may also be cut in half, allowing the citrus juice to mingle with the bathwater. The yuzu bath, known commonly as yuzuyu, but also as yuzuburo, is said to guard against colds, treat the roughness of skin, warm the body, and relax the mind. When Yuzu is in season, use it in your bath – 4-5 sliced in half.
CULINARY USE ~ Fruits are acidic and moderately juicy with pleasant citrus aroma and can be used as a lemon substitute. Citrus junos Tanaka (yuzu) has a strong characteristic aroma, and hence, yuzu juice is used in several Japanese foods. It stays tart and sour if cooked with foods. I keep a bottle of Yuzu Essence in my fridge and use a few drops in sauces for the floral scent, the pleasant tartness and to add umami flavor to my food. Yuzu essence is “extracted on-site after the fruit is hand-harvested from wild stock that grows in the Aki region of Koichi prefecture.”2
Historical Uses ~ Ritual use at the winter Solstice.
The herbaceous Rosemary oils, have great healing value in skin-and haircare treatments, in a diffuser blend to cleanse the room air and enliven the senses. They are often stimulating, uplifting, and potent. You can use Rosemary oil and the herb as part of a Massage oil, Bath oil, or Skin conditioner.
ROSEMARY – plant & Oil Uses
By Jeanne Rose
Introduction ~ Science is an interesting subject and because it is a living study, it often changes, and those changes can be challenging to understand. In the case of Rosemary, it is the name change that occurred in 2017 that will shake you up.
Common Name/NEW Scientific binomial ~ Salvia rosmarinus (was known as Rosmarinus officinalis) and due to studies done, and DNA analyzed, since 2017 it is a part of the sage genus.
FAMILY ~ Lamiaceae
Other Names and background ~ The species name, rosmarinus, comes from the Latin words ros (dew) and marinus (sea), or dew of the sea, in probable reference to the ability of this plant to thrive well in coastal areas (sea cliffs) and exposure to ocean mists.
Countries of Rosemary Origin ~ Salvia rosmarinus (Rosmarinus officinalis) is produced in various countries: the CT camphor is produced in Spain and Croatia; CT verbenone is produced in California, and France; CT cineole is produced in Morocco/US/France.
Endangered ~ Not threatened. This is an introduced plant to the United States and grows well in many areas.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ROSEMARY HABITAT, GROWTH, USES ~ “Rosemary is a perennial evergreen herb that is irregularly mounded and is valued for its fragrant, ornamental foliage and as an enhancement in cooking. It blooms from fall to spring. Key ID elements are the aromatic linear leaves which are green on top and whitish underneath, and also the axillary flowers.”1 It grows well in full sun where it often produces camphor, and it grows well in cool damp sunny areas where it will produce the cineol or verbenone type.
PORTION OF Rosemary USED IN DISTILLATION, AND YIELDS ~ The leaves, tops, and flowers are harvested, and steam distilled, and CO2 extracted. “Comminuting the pinene type of Rosemary will cause the bioconversion of alpha-pinene to verbenone. [Some plants need to be distilled fresh, some have to be dried, some semi-dried first, some need to be comminuted, that is, cut into smaller pieces, some need to soak for some hours before distillation. Each plant has different distillation parameter requirements.”2
The Yield: The yield can vary from .4 to .7% but is usually in the range of 1.0-2.0%.
Chemistry and Components ~ CT verbenone is a favorite with its Rosemary scent with a hint of fruitiness, CT camphor that has the scent of mothballs and is used for the application to pimples, and CT cineol that smells quite herbaceous is the most often used for applications. All Rosemary is very eponymous in its scent with herbaceous, and woody notes.
§ • §
GENERAL PROPERTIES of the ROSEMARY
Rosemary has three main chemotypes and the CO2. CT verbenone is a favorite in skincare and children’s products, CT camphor for application to pimples, and CT cineol in most other applications for pain or aches.
The camphor type is a vein decongestant, mucolytic, tonic, and possibly diuretic. This type is used for external applications for acne or skincare. Camphor chemotype is produced where it is hot. The camphor type has neuromuscular action that is variable depending on the dose. It is a venous decongestant by external application and powerful mucolytic by inhalation. We use it in massage blends for muscle cramps, joint pain, all around aches and pains.
The cineol type is most often used for Respiratory applications, specific for ear and sinus problems, and general external applications for healing. Inhale and apply.
The verbenone type is used for skincare, for oily or to regenerate the condition of the skin, and in products for delicate or sensitive skin. Inhale and apply.
CO2 Rosemary type. This CO2 extract acts as an antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. It is standardized in Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) seed oil. Rosemary Antioxidant CO2 Extract finds application in formulating creams, lotions, salves, balms and water-free products.
APPLICATION/Skincare ~ Rosemary has three main chemotypes. CT verbenone is a favorite for skincare, haircare and children’s products, with its Rosemary scent hint of fruitiness, CT camphor for application to pimples, and CT cineol in most other applications.
Rosemary has several health-boosting benefits aside from boosting prospective memory, it can be used in massage for pain relief, in bathing as it has antiseptic, antioxidant and astringent and anti-aging properties. Rosemary helps with dry and mature skin to produce more natural oils of its own. Rosemary can also help in getting rid of canker sores.
It is helpful to people who are losing hair and have problems with dandruff as it seems to stimulate hair growth and have less dandruff. Historically, Rosemary has been used to stimulate hair growth. There is one well-known study of 84 people with alopecia areata (a disease in which hair falls out, generally in patches), who massaged their scalps with a combination of Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica) Lavender (high elevation), Rosemary (unknown chemotype) and Thyme every day for 7 months experienced significant hair regrowth compared to those who massaged their scalps without the essential oils. But the study was not well designed, and it is impossible to say whether Rosemary caused the hair growth, or it was the combination of oils.
I have made my own shampoo using Rosemary herb (make a standard herbal infusion) as the base with other herbs, calling it “Dark Hair Shampoo” and have been using it and other shampoos that I enhanced with Rosemary herb and sometimes Rosemary oil and 50 years later at 84 my hair is still dark. I give all the credit to Rosemary.
[Herb Infusion: 1 qt. water to a boil, remove from heat, add 1 oz fresh or 1/2 oz dried herb, infuse 20 minutes, then strain. Use the dark liquid as part of your shampoo and herbal rinse.] You can also sip the infusion as an anti-inflammatory and anti-aging substance.
Diffusion with Rosemary ~ This is a wonderful oil to diffuse, it is spirited, clean-smelling, vibrant, and its effects are stimulating, uplifting and cleansing. It works in all sorts of blends, particularly herbaceous types and to give sparkling energy to blends with conifers.
Emotional & Energetic ~ Rosemary is feminine in its strength and …” seems to me the wiser, stronger sister of the Lamiaceae family. [Other members are Lavender, Sage and Melissa] Rosemary has spunk and spirit. It is the one to turn to when you feel weak and some stimulation or a strong arm to help you up; it is an oil to remember in the depths of the Canadian winter!” unknown author
BLENDING FOR A PURPOSE ~ Define your purpose and then choose the Rosemary type that best fits the purpose. In certain perfumery odors, you will probably choose the verbenone type, while in massage you will choose the cineol type. Rosemary mixes well with all citrus and citrus scents, resins, Mediterranean herbal scents almost everything except heavy florals. It is used in Cologne, some fern scents, conifer and forest blends and fresh summer odors. Keep the camphor type for therapeutic uses.
Culinary ~ The herb used in all sorts of foods; it is delicious, aids health, is anti-aging, and helps in the production of bile.
HERBAL USE OF ROSEMARY ~ Use this herb in your cooking, in your bath, as part of your shampoo for hair growth, in the rinse waters. Mix herb Rosemary and Lavender together and put in a silk bag and throw into the dryer with clothes to give a clean and fresh scent. Read my book, The Herbal Body Book,for dozens of formulas for the hair, the skin, and the home. The best use is to bathe and shampoo with herbs. Absolutely my favorite is to use herb Rosemary is mixed with Comfrey or Lemon balm and used in the bath as a bath herb (at least a full ounce by weight of the herb(s).
Hydrosol ~ This should be picked and distilled in full flower or just before full flower. At this time the hydrosol will be sweet while later it may be camphoraceous. This hydrosol is stimulating both by external application and internal use. This is the rejuvenating and ‘holding back old age’ hydrosol. It can be taken a teaspoon at a time in a glass of water as a tonic drink, bathed in, used in shampoo or skin care; in other words, submerse yourself in Rosemary herb tea, Rosemary herb and hydrosol baths, and Rosemary essential oil inhalations. The herbal extract and essential oil (and why not the hydrosol) show some powerful uses in diminishing the effects of Alzheimer’s. It is stimulating and when distilled averages 5.5 pH ± .1 …
HYDROSOL — PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.
HISTORY & INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT ROSEMARY ~ French folklore says that combing the hair once a day with a rosemary wood comb would prevent giddiness and modern folklore says use Rosemary in shampoo and hair rinse helps hair to grow. We also know that it is antioxidant and an anti-aging addition both to the diet and to skincare products.
“For you there’s rosemary and rue; these keep seeming and savour all the winter long: Grace and remembrance be to you….” — W. Shakespeare, The Winter’s Tale
Key Use ~ The Herb of Remembrance and the Oil of Anti-Aging and Stimulation
Coombs, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press. 1995 Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing. Florida. 1976 Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose. San Francisco California, 1992 Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press. Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999 Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. San Francisco, California. Rose, Jeanne. Herbs & Things. Last Gasp Press (ask them to republish it)
Moderation in All Things. Be moderate in your use of essential oils as they are just not sustainable for the environment. Be selective and more moderate in your usage. Use the herb first as tea or the infusion. —JeanneRose 2014
The warm sparkling bright citrus oils, including the ORANGE & Blood Orange, have great value in diffuser blends to cleanse the room air and refresh the senses. They are often very calming, soothing, and relaxing. You can use Orange oil as part of a Massage oil, Bath oil, or Skin conditioner.
ORANGE – BLOOD ORANGE – Uses
By Jeanne Rose
ORANGE Introduction ~ The citrus is so beautiful and so healthful for eating, and — is just delicious. The cold-pressed oil has a serious sweetness and bright happiness that makes it super in blends for mental health.
SCIENTIFIC NAME OF THE ORANGE ~Oranges have had many scientific names in the past, but Citrus x aurantium is now the standard. Citrus taxonomy is often inconsistent and confusing because there are only five pure original Citrus genus, and there are dozens maybe hundreds of varieties and combinations of these five.
______Family ~ Rutaceae
Countries of Origins ~ Big juicy Oranges and blood Oranges are no longer known in the wild, it is surmised that they originated in China.
Endangered or Not ~ Orange plant and most of its varieties are not considered endangered in any way; however, the wild Orange plant of India is considered endangered because of its very specific growing and habitat needs.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ORANGE PLANT HABITAT AND GROWTH ~ This is a small, evergreen tree that can be propagated by seeds, but the seeds will probably not grow true to form; or propagate by grafting on a suitable rootstock. It has large dark green leaves; white flowers, and the fruit has a sweet pulp that is deliciously juicy. The orange is a hybrid between a pomelo (Citrus maxima) and a Mandarin (Citrus reticulata).
Portion of plant used in distillation, and yields: Citrus peel is either steam-distilled or cold-pressed for Orange oil. The peel is also Solvent extracted for the absolute.
Yield ~ Orange peel oil yields up to 0.5% by cold pressing.
Orange Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment ~ Blood Orange has a rich scent brimming with citrus, and a subsidiary note of fruit, and green and herbal back notes; the scent is deeper and the flavor more intense and fruitier like berries because of the content of red anthocyanins. Sweet orange is the same with orange carotenoid pigments and less scent and less intense on all levels.
Language is important in recognizing smells. An important part of perfumery training is to develop in common an odor language based on olfactory standards. The possession of such an odor language increases the powers of discrimination. If you can name it, you own it.
CHEMICAL COMPONENTS of Orange Scent ~ Varieties of citrus are often based on scent chemistry especially the component limonene which has a chiral difference — both a left-turning molecule, (S) for sinistral with the sour smell of Lemon or Bitter Orange, and a right-turning molecule, for right hand or clockwise or dextral, the sweet smell of Oranges. This is the reason we all as lovers of essential oils and aromatherapy need to learn some chemistry along with good taxonomy.
“(+)-limonene or D-limonene (dextral) is the main constituent of this oil. The aldehyde content of Sweet Orange oil is the measure of the oil. The preferred Valencia oil possesses up to 3% aldehydes. One of which is decadienal with an extremely high aroma value. Other constituents that contribute to the character and quality of Orange oil are the sinensals. X-sinensal has a high orange aroma scent and low odor threshold while b-sinensal has a metallic-fishy note that can be very objectionable.
The difference between Orange and Grapefruit oil can be as simple as the amount of (+)-valencene. When the amount of a-terpineol exceeds normal level, off-notes occur. This terpineol forms during the aging or oxidation of orange juice. (Some essential oil of Orange is indeed produced from Orange Juice). The acetates contribute to the floral notes of Orange oil.”1
GENERAL PROPERTIES OF ORANGE PEEL AND ORANGE OIL
The essential oil of Orange is antiseptic, taking the peel as a tea is antispasmodic and slightly diuretic, both oil and peel are purifying, stomachic; when inhaled in a blend or massage the oil can be calming and sedating; and in skin care or by external application it has antiseptic properties.
_______Application/ Skincare of Orange oil ~ When using Orange oil or any citrus oil in skincare products, never apply directly and always use with a carrier oil or in a blend in the product. Orange is an antioxidant protecting the skin from damage, free radicals, and excess pigmentation and it is an antiseptic. This can be a useful addition in a skincare product besides the lovely odor.
_______Diffuse/Diffusion ~ The citrus especially the Orange and Blood Orange are wonderful in perfumes, blends, massage oils and they are particularly useful in all types of room sprays or in diffusion. It is a calming, sedative, tonic, and purifying scent. These two oils are a happy, cheerful scent. Here is one formula.
Orange/Blood Orange Floral Herbal Scent 2 parts each of Orange and Blood Orange + 1 part each of Ylang complete and Rosemary verbenone. Mix together and succuss thoroughly. Inhale as needed to uplift the emotions and ease tension.
Emotional & Energetic Uses the Orange oil ~ The oil can be used by inhalation and is most often recommended for obsessions, or to stimulate the appetite, and to improve your self-image by boosting self-confidence. The oil is also added to blends in massage to also boost these feeling.
BLENDS AND PERFUMERY WITH ORANGE ~ “Citrus oils are used in the perfumery business to impart a fresh, sparkling note to any blend. They are usually not overpowering. They can be used in up to 25% as the base for classic type of eau de cologne. Citrus oils harmonize with a large number of other essential oils and they are used in different concentrations in almost all scent blends and modern perfumes”.1
BLENDS BEST with most other scents including all other citrus, herbal scents, Mediterranean scents (Lavender, Rosemary, Marjoram, etc.), florals, and resins. Orange oil is much used in blends and perfumery as the scent is so pleasing; Blood Orange has more intensity, fruitiness, and tenacity that sweet Orange.
Classic Type of Eau De Cologne
The company 4711 has the Original Eau de Cologne formula. “It consists of seven main ingredients which have relied upon since 1792: Lemon, Orange, Bergamot, Lavender, Rosemary, Petitgrain and Neroli. Is it a traditional product? Of course! Is it monotonous? Never! Splash it, spray it, do whatever you want with it, it’s yours. Take a deep breath for a moment of freshness, relaxation and calm.” – from 4711 website.
HYDROSOL ~ A well-distilled hydrosol from either citrus flowers, citrus peel, or whole citrus can be obtained. The hydrosol of bitter Orange flowers is specifically called Neroli. All these Citrus hydrosols are easily used – in baths, in facial masks, as toners or in many products and they all have positive benefits for the skin, especially for dry or dehydrated skin. Neroli hydrosol is popular in cooking and in cocktails but be aware that it does not seem to keep very well, oxidizes, and often molds easily.
PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.
HERBAL USES OF ORANGE PEEL ~ The peel of the Orange has many uses. It can be sliced from the Orange, dried, and added to bath herb mixtures where it acts as an antiseptic aromatic. If you powder the dried herb peel you can mix it with clay or powdered Almonds and use in your facial mask for dry and oily skin. This peel can be simmered for a few minutes in water and the water used in herbal shampoos for oily scalp or dandruff and it can also be added to vinegar rinses for these same conditions. Orange flowers are dried and used in potpourris or mashed up with other facial herbs and used to condition the skin.
HISTORY & INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT THE ORANGE: “By the 1500, Spanish colonists spread Oranges in the New World, now called the Americas and soon, Oranges were grown on an island off Sao Paulo in Brazil. Ponce de Leon is alleged to have brought the first orange trees to Florida, in the early 1500s.2”The Orange is the most cultivated fruit tree in the world.
The oil is used for flavoring food, drink, and confectionery, Curacao type liqueurs, and for flavoring cigarette paper.
Key Use ~ The Oil of Refreshment (for antiseptic and digestive problems).
1. Ohloff, Günther: SCENT AND FRAGRANCES: Springer-Verlag. 1990. Translated by Pickenhagen and Lawrence
Bibliography Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin, 1960 Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press. Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999 Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. San Francisco, California: Rose, Jeanne. The Herbal Body Book. Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992
Contraindications ~ Some citrus when handled and especially Bergamot and Lime oil cold pressed will cause photosensitivity when used undiluted or if you are exposed to sun directly after application. These citruses contain furanocoumarins, (natural chemicals found in some essential oils). Be wary. Keep total amounts of these under 2% of the total of your blend or perfume. Lime peel oil or any citrus steam-distilled does not have the plant components that cause photosensitivity.
Juniper Berry benefits and uses. This oil come from the female seed cone that produces Juniper “berries”;Juniperus communis L. Juniper berries are used to flavor gin and liqueurs and eaten with meat; there is a French form has rather sweeter (fruitier) berries that I prefer to use to flavor drinks. Berries are diuretic and the oil or CO2 is wonderful in many blends as an anti-inflammatory, to ease pain of aching joints.
By Jeanne Rose ~ May 2021
Common & Scientific Name ~ Juniper tree or Juniper berry oil comes from the berries of Juniperus communis. Do not confuse this tree and its oil with other trees that have ‘juniper’ in the name.
Other Common Name/Naming Information – There are other trees in this family that are called Juniper but here we are limiting the discussion to Juniperus communis and not to the pencil-cedar called either ‘cedar’ or Juniper, or the Juniper tree that produces Cade oil.
Countries of Origins ~ This tree is limited to cool, temperate climates such as areas in India and Bulgaria. Varieties of J. communis and different berry-bearing species also grow on the west coast of the United States and are used in the production of local gin.
Endangered or Not ~ This tree is threatened or endangered in several areas. I have found this species in the local San Francisco Botanical Garden.
General description of Plant habitat and growth of Juniperus communis ~ This conifer belongs to the Cupressaceae family and the leaves are stiff and prickly, needle-like. It grows up to 18-feet but is generally kept pruned closer to the ground for the berries. 1st-year berries are green and have a fresh bright flavor and are usually allowed to mature another year when they turn brown to black before they are harvested to steam-distill or to be carbon dioxide extracted for a flavorant.
Portion of the plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: ~ Steam-distilled or CO2 from the merged scales of the cone, the berries, are the part that we usually just call Juniper oil. Entire branchlets are harvested for hydro-distillation for hydrosol use.
Yield ~ The 2nd year berries are harvested in the fall and 100 kilos yield 1 kilo of SD essential oil. 0.2 – 2.0% for berry oil.
• Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment ~ The steam-distilled essential oil from Bulgaria has a rather intense herbaceous odor with back notes of spicy, wood, and fruit while the CO2 example had a soft spicy, floral, and fruity odor – quite different and would obviously behave differently in a blend when contained other odors. The CO2 most closely resembles the scent of the berry.
GENERAL PROPERTIES of Juniper Berry oil
Properties and Uses ~ Juniper berries can be eaten or taken as a tea; the essential oil and CO2 extract can be used by inhalation and application.
Juniper berries are a crucial component of gin. The 1st year berries have a much different taste than the mature 2nd year berries.
The properties areantiseptic, diuretic, tonic, and depurative (purifying). The essence by Inhalation is a tonic, brain tonic, and helpful in respiratory complaints as an expectorant. The essence used in blends by application or massage is antiseptic, astringent, skin cleansing for oily skin.
When I travel, especially by air or even by train, I like to eat a berry or two to alleviate jet lag or for change-of-location.
Application/Skincare ~ Juniper berry oil is a valuable addition to skin and body care products due to its astringent and antiseptic qualities and is a wonderful addition in an astringent cleanser for the skin. It is a wonderful odor and deodorizer in men’s products.
Diffuse/Diffusion ~ Juniper berry oil can be diffused in a blend with other oils that are less intense in scent, such as Rosemary, Lavender, citrus oils. It has a very cleansing effect on the air, and is refreshing
Emotional/Energetic Use: Inhale Juniper berry oil for mental exhaustion, or to visualize being guarded from negative thinking and guard from danger. Be Positive.
Blends Best with most citrus oils, other wood oils such as Atlas Cedar, the Mediterranean herbs such as Clary Sage, Lavender, Rosemary, and the base oils such as Oakmoss, Labdanum, Vetivert and Patchouli.
Green Harmony – An Herbal Perfume Cedrus atlantica (wd) 3 drops Citrus aurantium ssp bergamia (pl) 6 drops Juniperus communis (berr) 3 drops Ocimum basilicum (lvs) 1 drop Salvia sclarea (lvs) 5
Sports Blend – Aching Muscles and Joints 5 drops Sage EO 5 drops Basil EO 5 drops Cypress EO (Cupressus sempervirens) 5 drops Juniper Berry EO 5 drops Lemon EO 5 drops Rosemary EO 2 oz carrier oil, especially recommended is Bruise Juice Vigorously massage aching areas as often as needed
General All Over Massage Oil for Pain ~ To one ounce of carrier oil, add 3-4 drops each of Rose Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), Juniper berry (Juniperus communis) and Lemon (Citrus limon).
Blending with formula One of my favorite blends is Juniper Berry mixed with Sage, Cypress, Lemon, Basil for the relief of all sports injuries, bruising, aching muscles, and external massage for cellulite and relaxing after exercise.
Chemical Components ~ Alpha-Pinene, Sabinene, Myrcene, Camphene, and Terpineol.
HYDROSOL of Juniper berry ~ A refreshing addition to your skincare routine, especially for troubled, acneic, or oil skin and hair.
________PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.
Historical Uses ~ “Common juniper was used by Native Americans of the Great Basin as a blood tonic. Native Americans from the Pacific Northwest used tonics made from the branches to treat colds, flu, arthritis, muscle aches, and kidney problems. Cones were used by the southern Kwakiutl of British Columbia for treating stomach ailments and wood or bark was used to treat respiratory problems. The Interior Salish used cones to make medicines for a variety of ailments. Eurasians made tonics from common juniper for kidney and stomach ailments, and for muscular uses and rheumatism.”1
The warm sparkling bright citrus oils, including the lovely Clementine, have great value in diffuser blends to cleanse the room air and refresh the senses. They are often very calming, soothing and relaxing. You can use Clementine oils as part of a Massage oil, Bath oil, or Skin conditioner.
CLEMENTINE ~ a Variety of Mandarin – Uses
By Jeanne Rose
All Clementines are Mandarins, but not all Mandarins are Clementines.
Clementine Introduction ~ The citrus is so beautiful and so healthful for eating, and Clementine is just delicious. The cold-pressed oil has a serious sweetness and bright happiness that makes it super in blends for mental health.
Clementine. LATIN BINOMIAL AND NAMING ~ Citrus x aurantium forma Clementine
Yes, the first two words are the same exact name as is used for Orange and Grapefruit and Bitter Orange-Neroli. But there are strict rules on naming and citrus has been examined and analyzed for parentage for quite some time. In the past it was called Citrus aurantium, C. aurantium var. clementine and other names with the ‘C’ always meaning Citrus.
Citrus taxonomy is confusing and often inconsistent. They are all named with common names and with scientific binomials using Latin grammar rules. Citrus often have the same parentage but have different names or body shapes or formae often based on terroir (such as Mandarin in Italy and Tangerine in the USA).
Other Names and background ~ Clementine is also called tangor which is a hybrid between Mandarin and sweet Orange. Names include clementine (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis var. Clementine), Citrus clementine Hort. ex Tan.
Family ~ Rutaceae
Countries of Origin ~ Clementine originated in either Algeria or China and are now grown in California and Florida, Morocco, Spain, Italy, and China.
Endangered ~ Clementine is itself not necessarily endangered, but it is worrisome for growers because they do not want the flowering crop to be pollinated by bees that have been in other groves. They often net the trees during the pollination period so that the crop will not become another variety due to cross pollination.
CLEMENTINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF PLANT HABITAT AND GROWTH ~ Clementine is a hybrid and a winter hardy type of mandarin that can be grown outdoors in Florida and do well in a container. Today, the easy-peel form called Clementine was created by Pierre Clément in a lucky crossing experiment around 1900 when he was a leader of the agricultural school in Oran in Algeria.1 They are harvested from February to April depending on the area.
Flavedo- Citrus essential oils are cold-pressed from the peel which contain the oil sacs or glands located irregularly in the outer mesocarp or flavedo of the fruit (Matthews and Braddock 1987). These glands are embedded at different depths in this colored, outer portion of the fruit and must be removed by first rupturing the glands by pressure or mechanical rasping (Matthews and Braddock 1987).
PORTION OF PLANT USED IN EXTRACTION AND YIELD ~ The peel of Clementine is cold-pressed, and yield is best if the fruit is semi-mature, and the plant was bee pollinated. Harvest time has a significant effect on essential oil yield.
Odor Description ~ Cold-pressed Clementine scent predominates in a powerful citrus, fruity, and floral note, a subsidiary note of green and wood, and with a back note of powder and spice. It is just delicious smelling. The oil can improve in cold storage if kept carefully in a fully filled container in a cool, dark place. The dissolved waxes will settle out and the oil be clear and more soluble.
Chemistry ~ Clementine contains considerable amounts of methyl N-methyl anthranilate, myrcene, linalool, as well as up to 96% limonene. (GC-MS did not say which limonene was present, but it is most likely the d-limonene or R-limonene). “The limonene structure has a chiral center, and thus it can be found in nature as one of the two enantiomers, the (R)- and (S)-limonene. The R isomer has the characteristic sweet smell of oranges while the S isomer has a smell more like a piney turpentine.”3
Citrus with the same parentage may have different scent chemistry such as (limonene which has a chiral difference — both a left turning molecule, (S) for sinistral with the sour smell of Lemon and a right turning molecule, (R) for right hand or clockwise, the sweet smell of Oranges). This is the reason we all as lovers of essential oils and aromatherapy need to learn some chemistry along with good taxonomy.
Clementine also contains p‐synephrine, an example of a non‐stimulant thermogenic agent as well as a natural decongestant.
SWEET CLEMENTINE GENERAL PROPERTIES
Soothing, relaxing, toning, slightly antiseptic, and refreshing to the senses.
Blending Clementine for Purpose ~ The warm sparkling bright citrus oils, including the lovely Clementine, have great value in diffuser blends to cleanse the room air and refresh the senses. They are often very calming, soothing and relaxing. Mandarin, Tangerine and Clementine will blend well with all other citrus, and can feminize chypre blends, warm-up woody blends and work to brighten any floral blend.
Use Clementine as part of a Massage oil, Bath oil, or Skin conditioner. The cold-pressed oil is used in shampoo, and massage oil, to brighten the scent. In skincare it is added to help with oily skin, and for sensitive skin; the scent improves the mood and lifts the spirit and used in a carrier oil of your choice as a skin toner (just add enough Clementine oil to very lightly scent the toner).
Sweet Smell of Happiness
Here is a good blend for diffusing in your home.
10 drops each of Neroli of Tunisia,
10 drops yellow Mandarin, and 10 drops of red Mandarin,
And especially at least 10 drops of Clementine,
Plus 7-10 drops of Mace (Nutmeg is too strong).
Succuss, and either add enough alcohol to make it 25% for a room spray
or add to 1-oz of carrier oil and use for massage
or put straight into the diffuser to make your home a happy place.
Herbal ~ The peel can be used in healing salves where it lends a refreshing scent and acts as an antioxidant. It is also used in potpourri as well as pressed and dried and used to make ‘boxes’ for trinkets.
Culinary ~ Delicious, when eaten out of hand. As with any citrus, they contain antioxidants including vitamin C and this helps with fiber intake, and health as well as improving one’s appearance. The juice contains p-synephrine which is a natural decongestant.
>Note ~ A 2017 study indicated that clementine phytochemicals (methyl anthranilate) may interact with drugs in a manner similar to those of grapefruit.
Clementine Interesting Information ~ Clementine was studied at the Citrus Research Center (now part of the University of California, Riverside) as early as 1909. Clementine’s lose their desirable seedless characteristic when they are cross-pollinated with other fruit. In 2006, to prevent this, growers such as Paramount Citrus in California threatened to sue local beekeepers to keep bees away from their crops. In Morocco ‘further experiments confirmed the fact that the seedless condition is the result of self-pollination. The presence of bees to effect pollination is necessary if a good yield is to be maintained.”2
Clementine, Citrus x reticulata, is used as a stocking stuffer during the Christmas holiday, and is one of the smallest members of the citrus. The Clementine is honey-sweet, and seedless, and is a subgroup of the Tangerine with a thin skin that is very easy to peel.
Clementine developed as a spontaneous citrus hybrid in Algeria, in the garden of an orphanage of a French missionary in the very early 1900’s.
The ancient Rose, first among the flowers, has been the most treasured throughout history. It is used today for both skincare and medicine; the oil in perfumery, and all parts of the herb in products.
ROSE – Absolute and Uses
By Jeanne Rose
Can I say, I love the species Rose that produce blooms only once a year, the most beautiful and treasured of buds, so highly sought after for scent, for medicine, for skincare, and for love.
Rose COMMON NAME/LATIN BINOMIAL ~. The Rosa centifolia or R. damascena is the traditional rose used for blending and perfumery while the Rosa gallica or Apothecary Rose is the traditional rose used for medicine and for therapy. There are dozens of iterations of the common name for Rose. These include the beach rose, the French or Apothecary rose (Rosa gallica), the dogrose (Rosa canina), tea rose, moss rose (Rosa moschata), and many more. Roses are used for blending, perfumery and in medicine.
_______Other Names and background ~ Queen of the Flowers and the name Rose was probably taken from the Greeks. Some other important roses are Rosa alba (Rosa damascena alba) – White Rose; Bourbon Rose, R. x bourboniana (Edouard Rose); Rosa x centifolia – Cabbage Provence rose or Rose de Mai (confused with the Kazanlik); and Rosa damascena (Rosa damascena forma trigintipetala or Kazanlik Rose. Rose essential oil is called rose otto or attar of rose.
_______Family ~ Rosaceae
COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN FOR ROSE ABSOLUTE ~ Bulgaria, India, Syria, Morocco, Iran, and more.
ENDANGERED ~ Some Rose varieties, types and cultivars are endangered. Some are extinct. However, the genus itself is not endangered and some species are not endangered. Species Roses are grown for scent and often hard to find, while the 35,000 or more varieties are grown as ornamentals and for their looks.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF Rose PLANT HABITAT AND GROWTH ~ Human breeders of rose varieties have tampered and toyed with the Roses to make them bigger, have more colors, and bloom more often. However, this reduces the number of odor molecules, and thus newer varieties have less to no fragrance.
Do not be confused by pictures of Roses that any company uses when they discuss Rose oil; they are mostly showing you pictures of recent varietals rather than the ancient and true essential oil species Roses.
Rose is a woody perennial flowering plant with a need of sun to produce its lovely odor.
Rose – PORTION OF PLANT USED IN EXTRACTION AND YIELDS ~ The only Roses that are grown for perfumery and medicinal uses are the species Roses. These include Rosa centifolia, R. damascena, R. borboniana and some R. alba. Whole Roses and/or petals only are the only parts used in the hydro/steam-distilation and solvent extraction. Flowers can also be treated by maceration with hot fat (not oil) and will give the Pomades and Extraits de Rose. The essential oil content of the rose petals collected in cool season is higher than that of the petals collected in warmer season. Distillation is better and more productive in the morning, at 5 am than it is 12 hours later at 5 pm.3
Yield of Rose absolute via solvent extractionRose absolute yields 20-25% essential oil. But its essential oil composition is different from rose oil and also from concrete.3
Yield of Rose oil via hydro/steam distillation – varies: 0.12% +. Some 3000 parts of flowers yields only one part of oil. 1 kg rose oil can be obtained from 3000-4000 kg of rose petals. So, the rose oil yield is up to about 0.03-0.04%.
ORGANOLEPTICS OF SOME ROSE samples
Rose absolute #302
Rose absolute #355
Very pale yellow
Viscous-crystalline when cool
Intensity of Odor
Depends on terroir, 3-4
Depends on terroir, 4
Tenacity in a Blend
Always adds the unexpected
Always adds the unexpected
Use personally, not for perfume
Description of sensory aspects of 3 Rose samples
ROSE ABSOLUTE SCENT DESCRIPTIONS ~ Rose scent is best experienced in true Species roses and in the essential oil and absolutes made from them. Scent is also dependent upon terroir, how the Rose is grown. The business of breeding flowers with a long shelf life has often meant that there is a “steep decline in floral scents: in part because volatile and pigment molecules share biochemical resources, so that more color means less scent, in part because some scent volatiles are also plant hormones that shorten vase life.”1
Rose oil and absolute is very complex because it has dozens of components. It can be described as being very floral, with a green and woody subsidiary note and spicey and sometimes fruity back note.
ROSE History ~ Rosa x centifolia is a descendent of the Rosa damascena which in itself was a natural hybridization of several species native to the Middle East and Europe and it and Rosa centifolia are the main roses used for blending and perfumery. Harold McGee in his wonderful book, Nose Dive, states that the damask rose is a combination of the Gallic Rose (Rosa gallica), the musk rose (Rosa moschata) and another, an Asian species.1
Rose was distilled in Morocco and by the Berbers 1300 years ago.The Rosewater was regenerative in skincare and used in food – both to perfume and for taste.
Rose absolute CHEMISTRY AND COMPONENTS ~ The components in the solvent extracts, concretes, and essential oil are somewhat different. Here we speak of the solvent extracted absolutes. The main components are as follows2:
75% phenyl ethanol – a floral odor that attracts bees and repels ants 5% citronellol – rosy scented 3% geraniol – rosy scented 3 + % linalool – a floral odor that attracts bees and repels ants 2.5% nerol – rosy scented
GENERAL PROPERTIESof the Rose oil and herb
The general properties of the Rose oil and extracts are analgesic, antibacterial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitussive, slightly astringent, hypnotic, tonic, and the herb tea is a mild laxative.
Applications in Skincare ~ Rose oil and absolute are used for all skin, particularly dry skin or aged skin. Any blend that you make and use on the face will reduce tension and stress in the skin and relax and smooth out wrinkles.
ROSE ANTI-AGING SKIN FORMULA Creamy Rose Lotion for all types of skin. Step 1. 1-ounce rose hydrosol (or distilled water if you have no hydrosol) 1-ounce Sunflower oil or Jojoba oil or a combination ½ ounce Shea butter ¼ teaspoon Rose wax or another flower wax Warm, and melt gently all together in a very small pot. Step 2. Make your synergy of oils and absolutes and success the mixture Rose Geranium oil – 6 drops Rose absolute oil –8 drops 2 drops – Vetivert Step 3. Add the synergy to the warm oil, wax, and butter, stir gently until integrated. Step 4. Pour into container, shake or stir until cool Step 5. Apply twice a day after cleansing.
BLENDING Rose FOR PURPOSE AND PERFUMERY ~ Rose oil and absolute has a unique ability to blend well with anything. It works well with woods, citrus, florals, spices, resins and the Mediterranean herbal blends and in most perfumes. Add it you’re your synergy, drop-by-drop until you achieve the scent you like. Try a Millefeuille Perfume of all florals, such as, tuberose, jasmine, rose geranium, lavender, with the green Violet leaf and with especially Atlas Cedar and Sandalwood.
Rose INHALATION AND DIFFUSION ~ Are you feeling very stressed and overcome with the events of the day? Take out that bottle of Rose absolute and inhale away. It is soothing to the heart and relaxing to the body. After a few seconds you will be smiling and relaxed. Rose has many purposes; both old and new. The absolute, and concrete is best for perfumery while the attar or otto is best for internal uses.
RITUAL USE ~ Rose oil either inhaled or applied to the forehead relieves headache and stress, and it makes you feel better soothing any shock or grief. Rose oil has a history of positive use in rituals for pain and a source of spiritual love and of joy and happiness. There are many ways to use the ancient Rose scent.
HERBAL Rose ~ There is almost nothing more relaxing than a rose petal bath. Just pick the petals and strew in the hot water. The heat extracts the fragrance and the smoothing emollient quality of the petals to cleanse and soothe the skin.
Rose petal tea with honey is a slight laxative especially useful to give to children as it is tasty. And Rosehips are loaded with vitamin C and are a tasty tea when they are available or dried and saved.
INGESTION/CULINARY USE OF THE HERB Rose. First of all, do not take the absolute internally as it is solvent-extracted. You can take a drop of the otto for emotional care – is good for the mind and heart. Remember it is the species Roses you want to become familiar with and not the low-scented varietals.
HYDROSOL OF ROSE ~ ROSEWATER ~ Rosewater has unlimited potential to improve any skincare product – add to any cream, lotion, tonic, moisturizer, bath, and more. Add it to foodstuff, beverage, cocktail. It is always soothing. It can be used with Seaweed extract and Rosemary herb for a true AntiAging elixir. it is anti-aging and actually good for your skin and in foods it is tasty. Try it. Read any of my (Jeanne Rose) books for many more uses.
Turmeric CO2 extract is used both in skincare and healthcare formulations as an anti-inflammatory and antiseptic. The rhizome is a historically well-known food and medicine used for thousands of years in India and has been recently recognized in Western medicine for its wide range of beneficial effects.
TURMERIC – Uses of the herb and the extract
By Jeanne Rose
Turmeric Latin Binomial ~ Curcuma longa L ,
Family – Zingiberaceae
Naming ~ Turmeric has also been called Curcuma domestica, ‘Indian Saffron’, and also known as tumeric or curcumin.
Countries of Origin: Native to Europe and Siberia and naturalized worldwide.
Endangered ~ Turmeric is considered to be an endangered medicinal plant.
General Description of Plant habitat and Growth ~ Botany: Turmeric is an herbaceous perennial plant whose rhizome (an underground stem that grows horizontally) is collected, dried and used as the spice. It needs a hot, moist climate and in India is harvested from December to March. The rhizome is boiled and then let to dry. The rough skins are removed, and it is then ground to make a fine rich yellow turmeric powder. Turmeric is natural preservative.
Turmeric portion of the plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods & yield ~ Turmeric rhizome is semi-dried or steamed, peeled, comminuted, soaked overnight in the distilling water, and then hydro/steam-distilled for the essential oil. Turmeric rhizome is dried and crushed to be solvent extracted.
Yield ~ solvent-free supercritical CO2 extraction of dried crushed rhizomes had a higher yield than the essential oil yield of 2.1-2.48%.
Odor Description ~ The carbon dioxide extract of Turmeric is softly fragrant with a spicy, somewhat floral and slight woody odor.
GENERAL PROPERTIES of Turmeric Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and preservative for the food industry. food colorant, and fabric dye.
Skincare/Cosmetic Use of Turmeric oil/Extract ~ Use Turmeric CO2 as an antiseptic and anti-inflammatory and use either oil or extract for blackheads and good skin tone. Make a paste of a pinch of Turmeric powder, a drop of the extract, some drops of lemon juice and apply this paste on face. Keep until it dry. Daily use definitely improves skin tone as well as helps to remove blackheads. Spray after with hydrosol or a Turmeric toner.
The mixture of equal parts of Lavender oil and Turmeric extract works well as an application for blackheads or in lotion as a toner.
Turmeric Physical Uses & Herbal Use of Turmeric How used ~ Turmeric is used as an herbal extract, CO2 extract in blending, the herb as a food item or to flavor food, and a colorant. The CO2 can be used in essential oil blends to help as an anti-inflammatory while the herb or herbal extract is taken as a supplement.
Turmeric Herb Therapeutic Uses ~ Science News wrote several bits of information about Turmeric in 2007. See 172-167; 172- 37; 172-13; 171-301. It appears to help prevent, and possibly treat, Alzheimer’s disease. Another study showed that a gene that is active in the brain offered one clue to why emotional stress seems to increase the likelihood of getting Alzheimer’s disease. “The US National Institutes of Health is supervising several clinical trials studying curcumin as a treatment for pancreatic cancer, multiple myeloma, Alzheimer’s dementia, and colorectal cancer.”2
Culinary ~ Turmeric is a food and spice. It is commonly used in curries and South Asian cuisine. It is a significant ingredient in most curry powders. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared foods such as canned chicken, mustards, meats, vegetable broth, and other foods (often as a cheaper replacement for saffron). The taste is most interesting and changes with the other ingredients used.
Hydrosol of Turmeric. I have never personally used this hydrosol, but I did search and found this quote, “Turmeric is highly responsive to the season it’s harvested in. … This shows us how turmeric hydrosol can help us adapt to change—both in the environment, and in our lives. … It can soothe distressing issues and ground us in steady health.”4
Emotional/Energetic Uses (AP or IN): Food prepared with Turmeric is considered uplifting and may ease depression. Try the CO2 or steam-distilled oil with Lavender, Clary Sage and/or Cistus as an inhalation.
It blends well with Lavender for a soothing inhalation.
Turmeric extract with Blood Orange and Bergamot EO is uplifting, and bright. See Mojave Mirage Blend in PrimaFleur blends for other uses.
Turmeric Formula for Aching Shoulders & More
20 drops of Turmeric CO2
20 drops of fine Lavender
40 drops of carrier oil
Mix all together and use for aching shoulders. This is mildly pain-relieving
And anti-inflammatory. The mixture can also be used in skincare
formulas for toning, skin eruptions and as a skin soother.
Blending for Purpose with Turmeric ~ Turmeric in Perfumery: Turmeric is a very unusual addition to blends and perfumes. It is exotic and a heart note that can be used in Chypre blends with Oakmoss and Labdanum as well as florals such as Clary Sage, Rose, Tuberose, Ylang-ylang, and Cistus, Hedychium (ginger lily), Saffron, spices and more. You can try it in a fougère as well.
Turmeric Chemistry and Components Chemistry:
Curcumin is the active ingredient in turmeric root that has been shown to have a wide range of therapeutic effects. Curcumin is known for its antitumor, antioxidant, anti-amyloid and anti-inflammatory properties. Flavex reports 70 – 90 % essential oil containing mainly alpha- and beta-turmerone and ar-turmerone; in addition alpha-phellandrene, alpha-zingiberene, sesquiphellandrene. The extract contains only traces of curcumin.3
History ~ In the 13th century, Marco Polo, writing about his travels in China, described Turmeric, “There is also a vegetable that has all the properties of the true saffron, as well as the color, and yet it is not really saffron. It is also used as an ingredient in many dishes.” “Turmeric has a long history of medicinal use in South Asia, mentioned in Sanskrit medical dissertation and widely used in Ayurvedic systems. Susruta’s Ayurvedic Compendium in 250 BC recommends an ointment containing turmeric to relieve the food poison effect.”1