Countries of Origins ~ Yuzu is believed to have originated in China and grows wild in central China and is well-known in Japan and now grown elsewhere.
General description of Plant habitat and growth ~ Yuzu is believed to be a hybrid of sour mandarin and ichang papeda. The fruit looks like a small rougher-skinned grapefruit (much smaller) with its uneven skin and can be either yellow or green depending on the degree of ripeness. Yuzu fruits, which are very aromatic, typically range between 2+ and 3+ inches in diameter but can be as large as a grapefruit.Yuzu is an acidic citrus from China that is grown as rootstock for other citrus varieties & for its fruit. Fruits are acidic and moderately juicy with pleasant citrus aroma and can be used as a lemon substitute. It is unusual among citrus plants in being relatively frost-hardy, due to its cold-hardy C. ichangensis ancestry, and can be grown in regions with winters at least as low as -9 °C (15 °F) where more sensitive citrus would perish. Harvest fruit when ripe, October through December.
Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields ~ Yuzu peel is both steam-distilled, solvent extracted for the absolute, and cold-pressed. The oil is traditionally extracted from the peel using the cold press technique and contains limonene (up to 77.0%) as a major constituent. However, the steam-distilled oil has no phototoxicity.
Yield ~ The overall mean yield is 0.18%.
Organoleptic Characteristics of Yuzu
Color – colorless to pale yellow for the steam-distilled Clarity – clear Viscosity – non-viscous Intensity of odor – 4-5
Taste – sour, umami, citrus
Tenacity –like other citrus and the unique tenacity lasts more than an hour after application.
Odor Assessment – Yuzu has a fine citrus odor, with fruity and floral subsidiary notes. Refrigerate this oil to keep it fresh smelling.
YUZU GENERAL PROPERTIES
Yuzu has radical-scavenging effects, antioxidant properties and is used in aromatherapy for its fine strong citrus scent.
Application/ Skincare ~ The peel is strongly scented and makes a good addition to blends and in perfumery. The scent is very refreshing. www.PrimaFleur.com. Yuzu in a blend treats the roughness of skin and warms the body.
Diffuse/Diffusion ~ It works well in many sorts of blends as it is invigorating and uplifting emotionally, some use Yuzu energetically as a mood-lifter.
CHEMICAL COMPONENTS of Yuzu ~ “Limonene was the most abundant monoterpene hydrocarbon followed by γ-terpinene and β-phellandrene in Yuzu. The volatile components of yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) cold-pressed oil were analyzed by capillary GC and GC–MS, without prior separation, and compared with those of lemon (Citrus limon Burm. f., cv. Lisbon) grown in Japan. p-Mentha-1,4,8-triene, was newly found among the seventy-seven components identified in the yuzu oil.”1
BLENDS BEST WITH ~ Peel is a good addition to blends when you need astringency and in perfumery for its strong citrus scent. Use as a top note with Bergamot and Lemon.
HYDROSOL of Yuzu is a wonderful fragrant and slightly astringent toner/tonic for skincare. Save it for your facial care and use orange hydrosol for body care. The fragrance is refreshing and relaxing while it adds its astringency to the water.
HERBAL USES ~ YUZU fruit known for its characteristically strong aroma, and the oil from its skin is marketed as a fragrance. In Japan, bathing with yuzu on Tojio, the Winter solstice, is a custom that dates to at least the early 18th century. Whole yuzu fruits are floated in the hot water of the bath, sometimes enclosed in a cloth bag, releasing their aroma. The fruit may also be cut in half, allowing the citrus juice to mingle with the bathwater. The yuzu bath, known commonly as yuzuyu, but also as yuzuburo, is said to guard against colds, treat the roughness of skin, warm the body, and relax the mind. When Yuzu is in season, use it in your bath – 4-5 sliced in half.
CULINARY USE ~ Fruits are acidic and moderately juicy with pleasant citrus aroma and can be used as a lemon substitute. Citrus junos Tanaka (yuzu) has a strong characteristic aroma, and hence, yuzu juice is used in several Japanese foods. It stays tart and sour if cooked with foods. I keep a bottle of Yuzu Essence in my fridge and use a few drops in sauces for the floral scent, the pleasant tartness and to add umami flavor to my food. Yuzu essence is “extracted on-site after the fruit is hand-harvested from wild stock that grows in the Aki region of Koichi prefecture.”2
Historical Uses ~ Ritual use at the winter Solstice.
The herbaceous Rosemary oils, have great healing value in skin-and haircare treatments, in a diffuser blend to cleanse the room air and enliven the senses. They are often stimulating, uplifting, and potent. You can use Rosemary oil and the herb as part of a Massage oil, Bath oil, or Skin conditioner.
ROSEMARY – plant & Oil Uses
By Jeanne Rose
Introduction ~ Science is an interesting subject and because it is a living study, it often changes, and those changes can be challenging to understand. In the case of Rosemary, it is the name change that occurred in 2017 that will shake you up.
Common Name/NEW Scientific binomial ~ Salvia rosmarinus (was known as Rosmarinus officinalis) and due to studies done, and DNA analyzed, since 2017 it is a part of the sage genus.
FAMILY ~ Lamiaceae
Other Names and background ~ The species name, rosmarinus, comes from the Latin words ros (dew) and marinus (sea), or dew of the sea, in probable reference to the ability of this plant to thrive well in coastal areas (sea cliffs) and exposure to ocean mists.
Countries of Rosemary Origin ~ Salvia rosmarinus (Rosmarinus officinalis) is produced in various countries: the CT camphor is produced in Spain and Croatia; CT verbenone is produced in California, and France; CT cineole is produced in Morocco/US/France.
Endangered ~ Not threatened. This is an introduced plant to the United States and grows well in many areas.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ROSEMARY HABITAT, GROWTH, USES ~ “Rosemary is a perennial evergreen herb that is irregularly mounded and is valued for its fragrant, ornamental foliage and as an enhancement in cooking. It blooms from fall to spring. Key ID elements are the aromatic linear leaves which are green on top and whitish underneath, and also the axillary flowers.”1 It grows well in full sun where it often produces camphor, and it grows well in cool damp sunny areas where it will produce the cineol or verbenone type.
PORTION OF Rosemary USED IN DISTILLATION, AND YIELDS ~ The leaves, tops, and flowers are harvested, and steam distilled, and CO2 extracted. “Comminuting the pinene type of Rosemary will cause the bioconversion of alpha-pinene to verbenone. [Some plants need to be distilled fresh, some have to be dried, some semi-dried first, some need to be comminuted, that is, cut into smaller pieces, some need to soak for some hours before distillation. Each plant has different distillation parameter requirements.”2
The Yield: The yield can vary from .4 to .7% but is usually in the range of 1.0-2.0%.
Chemistry and Components ~ CT verbenone is a favorite with its Rosemary scent with a hint of fruitiness, CT camphor that has the scent of mothballs and is used for the application to pimples, and CT cineol that smells quite herbaceous is the most often used for applications. All Rosemary is very eponymous in its scent with herbaceous, and woody notes.
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GENERAL PROPERTIES of the ROSEMARY
Rosemary has three main chemotypes and the CO2. CT verbenone is a favorite in skincare and children’s products, CT camphor for application to pimples, and CT cineol in most other applications for pain or aches.
The camphor type is a vein decongestant, mucolytic, tonic, and possibly diuretic. This type is used for external applications for acne or skincare. Camphor chemotype is produced where it is hot. The camphor type has neuromuscular action that is variable depending on the dose. It is a venous decongestant by external application and powerful mucolytic by inhalation. We use it in massage blends for muscle cramps, joint pain, all around aches and pains.
The cineol type is most often used for Respiratory applications, specific for ear and sinus problems, and general external applications for healing. Inhale and apply.
The verbenone type is used for skincare, for oily or to regenerate the condition of the skin, and in products for delicate or sensitive skin. Inhale and apply.
CO2 Rosemary type. This CO2 extract acts as an antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. It is standardized in Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) seed oil. Rosemary Antioxidant CO2 Extract finds application in formulating creams, lotions, salves, balms and water-free products.
APPLICATION/Skincare ~ Rosemary has three main chemotypes. CT verbenone is a favorite for skincare, haircare and children’s products, with its Rosemary scent hint of fruitiness, CT camphor for application to pimples, and CT cineol in most other applications.
Rosemary has several health-boosting benefits aside from boosting prospective memory, it can be used in massage for pain relief, in bathing as it has antiseptic, antioxidant and astringent and anti-aging properties. Rosemary helps with dry and mature skin to produce more natural oils of its own. Rosemary can also help in getting rid of canker sores.
It is helpful to people who are losing hair and have problems with dandruff as it seems to stimulate hair growth and have less dandruff. Historically, Rosemary has been used to stimulate hair growth. There is one well-known study of 84 people with alopecia areata (a disease in which hair falls out, generally in patches), who massaged their scalps with a combination of Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica) Lavender (high elevation), Rosemary (unknown chemotype) and Thyme every day for 7 months experienced significant hair regrowth compared to those who massaged their scalps without the essential oils. But the study was not well designed, and it is impossible to say whether Rosemary caused the hair growth, or it was the combination of oils.
I have made my own shampoo using Rosemary herb (make a standard herbal infusion) as the base with other herbs, calling it “Dark Hair Shampoo” and have been using it and other shampoos that I enhanced with Rosemary herb and sometimes Rosemary oil and 50 years later at 84 my hair is still dark. I give all the credit to Rosemary.
[Herb Infusion: 1 qt. water to a boil, remove from heat, add 1 oz fresh or 1/2 oz dried herb, infuse 20 minutes, then strain. Use the dark liquid as part of your shampoo and herbal rinse.] You can also sip the infusion as an anti-inflammatory and anti-aging substance.
Diffusion with Rosemary ~ This is a wonderful oil to diffuse, it is spirited, clean-smelling, vibrant, and its effects are stimulating, uplifting and cleansing. It works in all sorts of blends, particularly herbaceous types and to give sparkling energy to blends with conifers.
Emotional & Energetic ~ Rosemary is feminine in its strength and …” seems to me the wiser, stronger sister of the Lamiaceae family. [Other members are Lavender, Sage and Melissa] Rosemary has spunk and spirit. It is the one to turn to when you feel weak and some stimulation or a strong arm to help you up; it is an oil to remember in the depths of the Canadian winter!” unknown author
BLENDING FOR A PURPOSE ~ Define your purpose and then choose the Rosemary type that best fits the purpose. In certain perfumery odors, you will probably choose the verbenone type, while in massage you will choose the cineol type. Rosemary mixes well with all citrus and citrus scents, resins, Mediterranean herbal scents almost everything except heavy florals. It is used in Cologne, some fern scents, conifer and forest blends and fresh summer odors. Keep the camphor type for therapeutic uses.
Culinary ~ The herb used in all sorts of foods; it is delicious, aids health, is anti-aging, and helps in the production of bile.
HERBAL USE OF ROSEMARY ~ Use this herb in your cooking, in your bath, as part of your shampoo for hair growth, in the rinse waters. Mix herb Rosemary and Lavender together and put in a silk bag and throw into the dryer with clothes to give a clean and fresh scent. Read my book, The Herbal Body Book,for dozens of formulas for the hair, the skin, and the home. The best use is to bathe and shampoo with herbs. Absolutely my favorite is to use herb Rosemary is mixed with Comfrey or Lemon balm and used in the bath as a bath herb (at least a full ounce by weight of the herb(s).
Hydrosol ~ This should be picked and distilled in full flower or just before full flower. At this time the hydrosol will be sweet while later it may be camphoraceous. This hydrosol is stimulating both by external application and internal use. This is the rejuvenating and ‘holding back old age’ hydrosol. It can be taken a teaspoon at a time in a glass of water as a tonic drink, bathed in, used in shampoo or skin care; in other words, submerse yourself in Rosemary herb tea, Rosemary herb and hydrosol baths, and Rosemary essential oil inhalations. The herbal extract and essential oil (and why not the hydrosol) show some powerful uses in diminishing the effects of Alzheimer’s. It is stimulating and when distilled averages 5.5 pH ± .1 …
HYDROSOL — PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.
HISTORY & INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT ROSEMARY ~ French folklore says that combing the hair once a day with a rosemary wood comb would prevent giddiness and modern folklore says use Rosemary in shampoo and hair rinse helps hair to grow. We also know that it is antioxidant and an anti-aging addition both to the diet and to skincare products.
“For you there’s rosemary and rue; these keep seeming and savour all the winter long: Grace and remembrance be to you….” — W. Shakespeare, The Winter’s Tale
Key Use ~ The Herb of Remembrance and the Oil of Anti-Aging and Stimulation
Coombs, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press. 1995 Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing. Florida. 1976 Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose. San Francisco California, 1992 Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press. Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999 Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. San Francisco, California. Rose, Jeanne. Herbs & Things. Last Gasp Press (ask them to republish it)
Moderation in All Things. Be moderate in your use of essential oils as they are just not sustainable for the environment. Be selective and more moderate in your usage. Use the herb first as tea or the infusion. —JeanneRose 2014
Synopsis ~ LEMON PEEL OIL and juice contains limonene, citral, and some floral linalool, which gives Lemon Peel its appealing fresh fragrance and the terpenes its tartness. Itis one of the most valuable essential oils and is used in food, perfumery, skincare for oily skin, and for many medicinal purposes.
Common Name/Latin binomial ~ Citrus x limon (L.) Osb or Lemon tree or Lemon oil. There are strict rules on naming and citrus has been examined and analyzed for parentage for quite some time. Citrus taxonomy is confusing and often inconsistent. They are all named with common names, scientific names called Latin binomials based on Latin grammar and not necessarily with Latinized words.
Family ~ Rutaceae
Other Names and background ~ There are at least 25 varieties of the Lemon and it often uses the name Citrus limon as well as several old and new names. Some varieties are Bearss, Eureka, Lisbon, Meyer, and Verna Lemon.
Countries of Origin ~ Lemon oil is obtained from several countries and Prima Fleur #0086 is from the USA. The tree was native to SE Asia, mainly India.
Endangered ~ Not currently.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF PLANT HABITAT AND GROWTH ~ Lemon trees are cold- sensitive. Grow in warmth or full sun or the south side of a house. They need well-drained soil, slightly acidic. They can be grown from seed or cuttings. When I lived in Florida, our citrus tree had many varieties layered upon one trunk and we had oranges, lemons, and grapefruits from one tree. The fragrance of the blossoms was delightful.
PORTION OF PLANT USED IN EXTRACTION AND YIELDS ~ Lemon peel is either cold-pressed or steam-distilled. Various methods have various yields.
Yield ~ 0.6-0.8% from the cold expression of the fresh fruit peel.
ORGANOLEPTICS of LEMON PEEL OIL
colorless to pale yellow for steam-distilled oil and yellow when cold-pressed (#086)
Intensity of Odor
2-3 for cold-expressed and 1 for steam-distilled (on a scale of 1-10)
bitter and sour
Tenacity in a Blend
Lemon peel adds freshness but needs fixatives to hold it in a scent or blend
Organoleptics of Lemon Peel Oil from PrimaFleur Botanicals
Chemistry and Components ~ The varieties of Lemon often have the same parentage but have different physiologic forms or formae often based on terroir (such as Mandarin in Italy and Tangerine from Tangiers) or scent chemistry such as limonene which has a chiral difference — both a left-turning molecule, (S) for sinistral with the sour smell of Lemon or Bitter Orange and a right-turning molecule, ® for right hand or clockwise or dextral, the sweet smell of Oranges. This is the reason we all as lovers of essential oils and aromatherapy need to learn some chemistry along with good taxonomy.
Interesting/Science/Historical ~ There is a study that confirms that the composition of Lemon essential oil undergoes cyclic variations lasting one year1. And that Lemon fruit on the same tree may both smell differently from each other but also have different chemistry.
Lemon peel constitutes a main valuable source of essential oil that is used in foods and for medicinal purpose. It is used by application in skincare, ingested in medicines and used in blends by inhalation.
APPLICATION AND SKINCARE ~ DO NOT APPLY COLD-PRESSED LEMON OIL TO SKIN PRIOR TO SUN EXPOSURE.It may cause photosensitivity. This means it could cause serious skin damage when exposed to the sun such as redness, itching, burns, blisters, and permanent skin discoloration. Steam-distilled Lemon oil does not contain the plant substance (furanocoumarin) that causes photosensitivity.
Application ~ The essential oil when applied externally is an antibiotic, antiseptic, astringent, insect repellant, and wound healer. Apply as an astringent antiseptic on some infections, acne, a cleanser for oily skin, on skin sores, small, infected wounds or insect bites.
Skincare ~ Lemon peel oil can be used in skincare treatments to balance the pH of the skin, by counteracting acidity on its surface and it acts as a very mild natural bleach or lightener on the skin. It can be used to brighten dull skin color and to calm redness, as well as quell the irritation of inflamed skin. Prima Fleur carries several kinds of Lemon peel oil, organically grown and cold-pressed as well as cultivated and cold-pressed.
The conclusion of one scientific study showed that the scavenging action of lemon essential oil could have a practical application for treating human skin against oxidative damage.2
Ingestion: The Lemon peel essential oil should not be taken internally. The chemistry and scent of essential oil is different than the chemistry and scent of the juice of the Lemon. Inhalation: Inhale the crisp cheery scent of Lemon oil as a mildly calming antidepressant due to the cheery scent, or as a mild stimulant, antiseptic, fever-reducer, and depurative for its purifying and detoxifying effects.
Blending for Purpose ~ Lemon peel oil blends very nicely with Bergamot as a top note in blends and perfumery and then with most florals and woods to complete the blend.
______Diffuse/Diffusion ~ Lemon oil is a good addition to many other oils in your diffusor. It is uplifting, refreshing, and invigorating. For a quiet clear mind, add Rosemary to the Lemon, add sweet Basil or Spearmint to Lemon oil to uplift the spirit, and for a quiet calmness add Lemon oil to Vetivert.
Ritual/Emotional/Energetic Use: Lemon oil is used by inhalation for general fatigue and depression or physical exhaustion.
Culinary/Ingestion ~ Drink Lemon Juice do not use Lemon oil in water. Tiny amounts of Lemon oil can be used as a flavorant in foods.
Herbal ~ Lemon peel, dried or fresh, can be used in baths, facial steaming herbs, most potpourris and herbal mixtures; it is used as decoction for normal to oily hair or in infused vinegar to use as a hair and skin rinse. Diluted Lemon juice can also be used directly on the hair and skin and it acts to reduce the alkalinity of shampoo and to rid the hair of dandruff and the skin of minor irritations.
Lemon and Cucumber Mask Mash some Cucumber in a mortar, add some Lemon juice, and Enough Almond meal to make a paste. Apply to face or knees or elbows. This is mildly astringent and yet soothing.3. You can also make this mask with Lemon Hydrosol
Hydrosol ~ I have used Lemon Hydrosol from several companies; they were distilled from whole fruit and rind and were each perfect in their own way. The hydrosol is wonderful for slightly oily skin and very soothing and a refreshing tonic for the skin.
Key Use ~ I like to call Lemon oil “the Oil of slimming” as it is effective in blends for this purpose.
1.On the genuineness of citrus essential oils. Part X. Research on the composition of essential oils produced from Sicilian lemons using ‘pelatrice’ and ‘sfumatrice’ extractors during the entire 1983/84 production season. A. Cotroneo et al. March 1986. https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.2730010206
SOME CAUTIONS TO REMEMBER FOR ALL PLANTS & THEIR PARTS
PATCH TEST: If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64
HYDROSOL — PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh. DO NOT INGEST ESSENTIAL OILS: Although some oils are important flavoring oils in the flavor industry and thus ingested in very small amounts in many foods, especially meats and sausages, it is not a good idea to use them yourself either in capsules or in honey to take internally. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS: Do not apply the essential oil neat, especially to the underarms or delicate parts of the body. Most oils are probably not to be used on babies, children or pregnant women. Many aromatherapist suggest that there are some oils not be used at all. However, as with many plants, essential oil chemistry is subject to change depending on species, chemotype, and terroir. CONTRAINDICATIONS:Be moderate in your use of any essential oil. A little goes a long way. Remember to choose the herbal use over the essential oil use normally; an herb tea is milder than the essential oil. There are always contraindications for the excessive use of some plants and for their essential oils in both perfumery and aromatherapy.
Moderation in All Things. Be moderate in your use of essential oils as they are just not sustainable for the environment. Be selective and more moderate in your usage. Use the herb first as tea or the infusion. —JeanneRose 2014