MANDARIN & TANGERINE  OIL and the Plant ~ A complete description of this part of the Citrus family with familial ties, country of origin, characteristics, body care, skin care, formulas, and recipes on how to use this oil.

Essential oil of tangerine and Mandarin from PrimaFleurBotanicals.
Photo by JeanneRose

Mandarin and Tangerine, both are Citrus reticulata Blanco var., either Mandarin or Tangerine are the LATIN BINOMIAL/BOTANICAL names while Clementine is considered Citrus x reticulata var. Clementine and is discussed elsewhere >

            If you want to twist your brain cells,  look at the incestuous crosses, backcrossing, mutations, aberrations, speciation events, hybrids, genetic mixings, varieties, groups or outgroups, rootstock changes, and terroir effects of the many Citrus types to understand the various citrus fruits, we have now.
Anywhere from 12 up to 162, different ones are accorded subspecies or varietal names. Mandarin can be called Citrus reticulata var. mandarin, and Tangerine can be called Citrus reticulata var. tangerina.  Mandarin has also been called var. deliciosa, and of course, it has other names as well.
            But as Mabberley says of citrus, “… the morphological distinctions are slight and much of the commercially significant striking degustatory distinction rests on a subtlety, the presence and relative proportions of the two stereoisomers of limonene, one of which is bitter (as in lemon), the other sweet (as in mandarin), resulting in the differing tastes (and smell) of the flesh and juice.”

By Jeanne Rose ~ November 2023

            There is a naming problem in citrus, and it is complicated by the number of edible citrus that are recognized … up to 162.



Examples of hybrid Citrus, showing their derivation from the pure founder species, from an analogous chart in Curk et al., 2016, with addition from Swingle’s original limequat report.  — Author Agricolae

FAMILY ~ Rutaceae

            NAMING ~ All Tangerines are Mandarins, but not all Mandarins are Tangerines generally, this is a difference of terroir. A Tangerine is a cultivar of the Mandarin Citrus reticulata. Despite the common name, it is just a different variety of Mandarin, Mandarin from China, and Tangerine from the Americas.

            “Asian art, especially from China and India, often features the Mandarin crowned with thin, green leaves and clinging delicately from a willowy tree. Mandarins are noted for loose skin, often referred to as “kid glove” because it’s soft and easy to peel, the Mandarin that we know is juicy and somewhat tart with seeds. The height of the winter season finds an abundance of Mandarins in the markets, often sitting next to Tangerines.”1

                  All citrus is native to Asia, the Philippines, and India, and it found its way from the orchards and the art easel across the Eur-Asian continent to Europe and then to the United States.

            INTERESTING FACTS about the Naming  ~ The name comes from the mandarins of Cochin, China, where it originates, and to whom the fruit was offered as a gift”, Essential Aromatherapy, p. 147. Mandarins or Tangerines are given at Christmas in the Christmas stocking as a stand-in for the gold coins that were a tradition. They are also given for good luck and abundance at Chinese New Year, which normally is in late January and February.

                        Tangerines, Clementine, and Satsumas are three varieties of the mandarin orange and the most popular. Because the Mandarin orange can easily be crossed with other citrus, varieties pop up in differing climates (terroir) worldwide. Growing seasons also differ, with some Tangerine harvests coming in through June.

COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN OF ESSENTIAL OIL ~ Good quality Mandarin oil comes from Italy, Clementine oil from Italy and the United States, and Tangerine oil from the USA.

Clementine and Mandarin fruit from two separate farms. Photo by JeanneRose

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF PLANT, HABITAT, & GROWTH ~ Mandarin and Tangerine are from a fruit-producing evergreen shrub with dark-green glossy leaves and fragrant flowers.

            Mandarin, Citrus reticulata (syn. C. nobilis) (Rutaceae). “The Mandarin tree comes from southern China (a Mandarin was a Chinese government official attired in a yellow dress). Today, the Mandarin fruit is mostly known as the seed-less, loosely peeled variety sometimes called Clementine, created by Pierre Clément in a lucky crossing experiment around 1900 when he was a leader of the agricultural school in Oran in Algeria.” 2

            “Mandarin groves are well-known in Sicily and are scattered throughout the provinces of Messina, Catania, and Palermo. Mandarin oil is made by collecting the fruit peel and cold-pressing.

            The oil called Green Mandarin (not ripe) is harvested from February through May; the oil called yellow Mandarin (not fully ripe) is harvested during October and November, and (fully ripe) red Mandarin oil from fruits harvested from December to January.

            Tangerine, Citrus reticulata, “Dancy Tangerine is direct from an established manufacturer (since 1985) in Florida with access to some of the freshest fruit available.”3 The largest plantings come from Florida.

            The first American tangerine was introduced to the market by the legendary citrus grower Col. Adam Dancy in 1867-1868. This acidic, richly flavored fruit immediately established a new category of citrus product in the United States – less tart than an orange, more complex and brighter than a Pomelo, and not oversweet like the Chinese Sweet Orange then in fashion.4 

            The Tangerine is just a variety of Mandarin orange and is often confused with the Clementine. They are both very close in taste and appearance but not the same fruit. Tangerines are a tropical fruit and are grown in USA climate zones 8 to 11. Standard trees that are planted outdoors will reach a height between 10 and 15 feet. Plant it where it is sunny and warm in good soil. As they grow, the tree branches may bow down, and there may be wart-like growths on the trunk. As with many citrus, they may be grown on a different rootstock. Ripe and ready to pick from February to April — the harvest season depends on terroir and may differ in different areas.

             Clementine, Citrus x reticulata, a popular stocking stuffer during the Christmas holiday, is the smallest member of this group. The honey-sweet, seedless Clementine is the most eater-friendly of the Mandarin orange types and is a subgroup of the Tangerine. Tangerine vs. Clementine qualities include a thin skin on the Clementine that is tighter than a Tangerine but so easy to peel that a child can do it. They are harvested from February to April, depending on the area.

            The differences between Mandarin and Tangerine cannot be explained by the differences in the way the oil is expressed because often identical methods are used… “The soil, climatic and cultural conditions (terroir) prevailing in the various producing sections …have a certain, perhaps a fundamental, influence upon the chemical composition and, therefore, upon the physicochemical properties of the oils.”5

Tangerine and Clementine Differences ~ Tangerines are smaller and sweeter than an Orange yet larger than a Mandarin, and they have a rind that’s darker in color. The Tangerine emigrated to America from Morocco’s port of Tangiers, from which it got its name. Tangerine qualities include a reddish-orange skin that distinguishes it from the lighter-skinned Mandarin. Tangerines are the most popular type of Mandarin, but they are more tart in taste. Like the Mandarin, Tangerines have seeds. The longer growing season puts Tangerines in the market from November through May.

“Lemon and Orange oils and other citrus oils improve after a year or two of cold storage in that some of the dissolved waxes separate from the oil and may be removed easily by filtration. The resulting oils are more soluble and produce clearer extracts. Neither odor nor flavor is impaired if the oils are kept in tin-lined fully filled drums.”5

Mandarin fruit with six oils of Mandarin and Tangerine, plus a bottle of Mandarin hydrosol.  Photo by JeanneRose

All the many Mandarin oils, Tangerine oils and Clementine oils I have collected over the years – all in one place at one time.


            For Mandarin fruit, 100 kg of whole fruit yields 750-850 g. of oil. Green Mandarin essential oil is cold pressed from the peel of unripe green fruits. Yellow Mandarin essential oil is cold pressed from the peel of partially ripened fruits. Red Mandarin essential oil is cold pressed from the peel of fully ripened, mature fruits. The scent of each of these oils is slightly different and will express this slight difference into any blends used.

            Tangerine, when using the rotary juice extractor for juice (cuts and halves and expresses the juice) and then the screw press is used to extract the peel oil, the peel yields an oil of a deep orange color and very nice odor and flavor. The yield is about 2 lb. per U.S.  ton of fruit.

            Clementine is not mentioned in Guenther’s book, and I have been unable to find an exact yield of essential oil to weight in any one of the 10 sources that were checked.

             Yield is 0.7%-0.8%. The essential oil of these citruses is either cold-pressed or sometimes steam-distilled from the peel (flavedo).

Mandarin is named in relationship to its ripeness when harvested.

THE Sensory
Color:Light yellowYellow to greenishGreen-yellowGolden orangePale yellow
Taste of EO:Sour, bitter backsourBitterSweet, sour back noteBitter, sour
Intensity of Odor from 1 – 10543-44-54
Tenacity in blend From 1-10444-54-54

ODOR DESCRIPTION ~ The scent of two of these five oils is shown in the ‘snapshot’ odor charts at the end of this post.  They are all citrus, fruity, and then with various back notes that separate them by odor. “You will know them by their odor.”7

           MANDARIN ~ The scent is certainly connected to the chemistry. Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and the cold-pressed oils of Tangerine and Clementine contain considerable amounts of methyl N-methyl anthranilate.  According to some, if you mix this component with thymol in the correct proportions, you can duplicate a scent that is reminiscent of Mandarin. Add the terpenes of y-terpinene and –b-pinene, and you can get an even more natural scent. A-sinensal is abundant in Mandarin oil up to 0.2%.

           When Clementine from Spain was analyzed by GC/MS, several new odorants were found but ‘No single odorant emerged as being characteristic of clementine oil aroma.8

This work is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.

SOLUBILITY ~ Mandarin is soluble in 7-10 volumes of 90% alcohol with some turbidity, and Tangerine is incompletely soluble in 95% alcohol. With some age, the waxes will separate out and can be filtered off, and the oil is more soluble.


CHEMICAL COMPONENTS ~ The morphological distinctions of citrus are slight …. and much of the (taste test) distinction rests on a subtlety, the presence, and relative proportions of the two stereoisomers of limonene, one of which is bitter (as in lemon), the other sweet (as in mandarin), resulting in the differing tastes (and scent) of the flesh and juice.

            “Mandarin oil is made by cold-pressing the peels of true Mandarin and has an elegant, deep, sweet, orange-like character; it is used in liqueurs and perfumery. The major odor impact compounds are the sesquiterpene aldehyde alpha-sinensal, also characterizing orange oil, and the aromatic ester methyl N-methyl anthranilate, giving the oil a neroli-like character (and a blue fluorescence).”

            “ Clementine peel oil, on the other hand, is dominated by unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes…., with an odor reminiscent of Coriander leaf and having a high tenacity on the skin, together with sinensal and linalool.”2

HISTORICAL USES ~ Mandarin/Tangerine trees’ fruit was historically used for digestive purposes.

Mandarin at the Farmers Market. Photo by JeanneRose

Photo by Jeanne Rose


GENERAL PROPERTIES of Mandarin/Tangerine Oil and Herb/Fruit

            Properties are by IG=ingestion, IN=inhalation or AP=application. By Ingestion, these citrus fruits (not the EO) are digestive, tonic, and stomachic; by inhalation, the EO is sedative, soporific, relaxant, calmative, tonic, and antispasmodic; and by application, the EO is astringent and slightly antiseptic.      


            Application ~ If you use the essential oil in your skincare products, Mandarin and Tangerine will give these products slightly astringency and be slightly antiseptic.  In a moisturizer, they will help tone and tighten skin, contributing to healthier and younger-looking skin.

            Ingestion ~ The essential oils of Clementine, Tangerine, and Mandarin are used in food products, so yes, they are used internally. But these are extremely small amounts of the EO in any product; we suggest that unless they are significantly, very highly diluted in food or in an oil, that you eat the fruits and use the oils in external blends or by inhalation.

            EMOTIONAL/ENERGETIC/MEDITATIVE USES (AP OR IN) ~ Tangerine or yellow or red Mandarin EO will soothe grief, anger, and shock and, when combined with Marjoram in a diffuser or, upon inhalation, will aid sleep.  Since Mandarin is usually more expensive than Tangerine, I suggest you use Tangerine and I suspect that Clementine will work as well as any of these.

            DIFFUSE/DIFFUSION ~ These warm, sparkling-bright citrus oils have great value in blends to cleanse the room air and refresh the senses. They are often very calming, soothing, and relaxing.

showing a number of paperweights, and perfume bottles, photo by Jeanne Rose

JeanneRose photo of perfume bottles and paperweights

BLENDING & PERFUMERY ~ Mandarin, Tangerine, and Clementine will blend well with all other citrus and can feminize the deep Chypre blends, warm-up woody blends, and work to brighten any floral blend. These three can be used with resins and Mediterranean herbs such as Marjoram, Lavender, and Rosemary,  and they are an important part of most top notes in fine perfumery.     For a crisp scent, use green Mandarin or green Lemon; for warmer heart notes, use the riper citrus such as yellow or red Mandarin and Tangerine.

Think shiny suits, cigarette smoke, martinis,
big flashy cars and brunettes
TOP NOTE – 68-78
58 d Elemi
10 d. Green Mandarin
10 d green Lemon
10 d Cocoa abs
18 d Black Pepper
28 d Jasmine sambac abs
22 Rose abs
4 d Tobacco
2 d Juniper (Juniperus communis)
12 d Cinnamon
16 d Zdravetz
48 d Sandalwood
(I prefer New Caledonia Sandalwood here)

HYDROSOL ~ I have been having a fine time using Mandarin hydrosol in my bath to soothe the skin and on my face as a toner. I have also used a teaspoon full in my tea in the afternoon and tried a bit in coffee to take the edge off the tannins. The citrus hydrosols are readily available in season or by special order from various companies.

HERBAL USE OF THESE FRUITS AND PEELS ~ When you use citrus, there are many ways that all parts can be used. You can squeeze and drink the juice, then dry the peel for potpourri; you can eat the fruit and collect the peels to hydro-distill for a lovely hydrosol, or you can slice and dry the fruit and use it for decorations on your Christmas tree or in your winter potpourri. The dried slices of any citrus look very festive on a Christmas tree, and then when Christmas is over, the slices can be used to scent your potpourri; if there is enough scent left, they can be tinctured for perfume. I don’t think I would eat them at this point as they would have been in the air for over two weeks and will smell rather ‘tired.’

dried Mandarin slices

Dried Mandarin slices – I hang these on the Christmas tree for scent and color.

            Food Usage ~ TESTED AGAINST MICROORGANISMS ~ The essential oils from peels of Mandarin and Clementine were examined and tested. “Among the tested microorganisms, the oils were very active against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Lysteria innocua, Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus, and Staphylococcus aureus with an inhibition zone varied from 9.16 to 27.63 mm. … All citrus oils studied exhibited antioxidant activity as DPPH free radical scavenger and reducing power in dose-dependent manner. Mandarin oil showed the strongest activity compared to Clementine and the Wilking cultivar essential oils.

The oils may be recommended as safe plant-based antimicrobials as well as antioxidants for enhancement of shelf life of food commodities.”6

KEY USE ~ The fruit as a food and the essential oil as a sleeping aid.


Tangerine & Green Mandarin

Read The Aromatherapy Book, Chapter 3, pages 63-66 and 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols,
Chapter 3, pages 27-31. These two books will assist you in learning how to describe odors. Available at

 The limbic system is the seat of memory and learning. Smell from the left nostril and then to the right nostril. The right nostril (right brain-creative) is important in detecting and evaluating the intensity of odor, and this hints at a broad olfactory asymmetry, and the left nostril (left brain or logical) is for smelling location or place.

First Smell and 2nd Smell. “Lurking in the olfactory epithelium, among the mucus-exuding cells, are cells that are part of the system that innervates the face (trigeminal nerve).  It is suspected that pungent and putrid molecules penetrate them, interact with their proteins, and stimulate them to fire.  Thus, there are two types of olfaction: first smell, the ordinary type for specific odors, and second smell for nonspecific pungency and putridity.”

There is also left brain and right brain smell-ability. The left brain smells location (maybe via logical use of EMG waves), while the right brain smells intensity. The closer you get – the more intense the odor.

References to articles

5 Guenther: THE ESSENTIAL OILS, volume III, Citrus oils: Krieger. 1949.
6 Chemical profile, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Citrus reticulata and Citrus clementina (L.) essential oils, International Food Research Journal 24(4) · August 2017
7 Jeanne Rose lectures and “Natural Perfumery” workbook
6 Chemical profile, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Citrus reticulata and Citrus clementina (L.) essential oils, International Food Research Journal 24(4) · August 2017
7 Jeanne Rose lectures and “Natural Perfumery” workbook
8 Characterization of the major odorants found in the peel oil of Clementine. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 04 July 2003.

Copeland, Dawn. Essential Oil Profiles. Aromatherapy Studies Course. 2000.
Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol
Mabberley, D.J., Mabberley’s Plant Book, 2008 Third Edition with 2014 updates, Cambridge University Press
Ohloff, Günther:  Scent and Fragrances: Springer-Verlag. 1990. Translated by Pickenhagen and Lawrence
Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols
Rose, Jeanne. Natural Botanical Perfumery Workbook. 2000
Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations

Safety Precautions information

WHAT IS THE ‘X’ FOR IN THE NAME ~ Hybrids have an ‘x’ between the genus name and the species name. “Hybrids either get their parents’ names with an ‘x’ in between parent names (mother listed first), or a brand-new species epithet preceded by an ‘x.’  The name for the orange can be listed as Citrus maxima x Citrus reticulata or Citrus x aurantium.  You often see the name Citrus sinensis or Citrus x sinensis for oranges, but those are synonym names that should not be used anymore.”


Lime Oil and the Plant

Lime Oil and the Plant ~ A complete description of Lime, family ties, country of origin, characteristics, body care, skin care, formulas, and recipes for using this oil. Lime oil has excellent application in skin care products for its astringency for oily skin and is used for its tart scent, particularly in men’s perfumery.

Lime oil courtesy of 1.


By Jeanne Rose ~ October 2023

Latin Binomial/Botanical ~ Citrus x aurantiifolia is the Latin binomial for regular Lime oil, and it is also incorrectly listed in various places as Citrus aurantiifolia.

[the x means that it is a cross between other citrus varieties.]

“Bearss Lemons, ” called Lime, is Citrus latifolia or Persian lime. It is like the Lisbon Lemon.

            Makrut Lime and Kaffir Lime  is C. hystrix. The leaves, as well as the fruit, are eaten in foods and distilled and used in perfumery.

            “The lime. *The putative parent differs from the unknown parent of the Lemon; Scora & Kumamoto (1983) consider there may be three wild species in the lime’s ancestry, two of them perhaps from outside subgenus Citrus.”3
The parents of the ‘Mexican Lime are C. micrantha and C. medical, and then the Mexican Lime crossed with Lemon gives the ‘Tahiti’ Lime (C. x latifolia).

           >> If you want to have a fun time scrambling your brains, look at the incestuous crosses, backcrossing, mutations, aberrations, speciation events, hybrids, genetic mixings, varieties, groups or outgroups, rootstock changes, and terroir effects of the many Citrus types to understand the various citrus fruits, we have now. <<

                  Ancestral species include
Citrus cavaleriei — Ichang Papeda
Citrus hystrix – Kaffir Lime
Citrus japonica — Kumquat
Citrus maxima – Pomelo
Citrus medica – Citron
Citrus micrantha  – Papeda
Citrus reticulata – Mandarin Orange

Kaffir Lime Citrus hystrix …2

FAMILY ~ Rutaceae

NAMING ~ The taxonomy of the citrus fruits is complicated by hybridity and apomixis (asexual regeneration), with many stable hybrid lines being accorded species status, so that the number of edible species recognized in the genus Citrus L. … varies from 1 to 162”.1
            The current version of the Bearss lemon (lime) originated in the early 50s in Florida and is a popular variety for lemon growers. It is a true Lemon, and it is high in Lemon oil. It is also popular because it produces high-quality fruit, a lot of Lemons on each tree, and because of its peel.”2
(see the Lemon blog:  ) It is also called Citrus x latifolia or Persian lime (also known as Tahiti lime or Bearss lime), a seedless variety.

And yes, it is very confusing.

Citrus latifolia … 3

COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN of Lime ~ There is a wide range of studies of where and how the diverse Citrus developed or where they were indigenous. They are now naturalized worldwide. Guenther mentions that Lime is probably a native of the East Indian Archipelago and then brought to the Asiatic mainland and on to tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Lime was brought to Europe by the Arabs. Read volume 3, page 287 of The Essential Oils by Guenther for more extensive information.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF LIME CITRUS, PLANT, HABITAT, & GROWTH ~ “The tree seldom grows more than 5 meters (16 feet) high and, if not pruned, becomes shrub-like. Its branches spread and are irregular, with short, stiff twigs, small leaves, and many small, sharp thorns. The evergreen leaves are pale green, and the small white flowers that bloom in spring are usually borne in clusters. The fruit is about 3 to 4 cm (1 to 1.5 inches) in diameter, oval to nearly globular in shape, often with a small apical nipple, and the peel is thin and greenish-yellow when the fruit is ripe. The pulp is tender, juicy, yellowish-green in color, and decidedly acidic. Limes exceed lemons in both acid and sugar content. There are, however, some varieties so lacking in citric acid that they are known as sweet Limes. These are grown to some extent in Egypt and certain tropical countries.”2  
“Citrus fruits are notable for their fragrance, partly due to flavonoids and limonoids (which are terpenes) contained in the rind, and most are juice-laden. The juice contains a high quantity of citric acid, giving it its characteristic sharp flavor. “8

This was described as a Meyer Lemon but looks much like the Lime. Photo JeanneRose …4

If Lime is cold-pressed, “The fruit is peeled and then squeezed, and the essential oil is trapped ‘in a blanket like emulsion composed of albedo [containing all the bioflavonoids], with its pectin and cellulose, water, and essential oils.’ [Fragrance by Edwin Morris] This is put through a screen and then centrifuged. It is then chilled, precipitating and solidifying the waxes from the fruit skin, which drops to the bottom of the collecting tank and is filtered out. The oil settles, then it is filtered again, decanted and stored” Aromatherapy Studies Course, Chapter 3, p. 62

            Lime is also steam-distilled, and this eliminates its phototoxicity.

         Yield ~ many factors affect the yield of oil from cold-pressed or steam-distilled Lime, including genetic factors, the terroir of the field, whether the peels were dried or pretreated when the Limes were harvested, and more. Guenther mentions that hand-pressed or cold-expressed Lime oil has a pleasing, true-to-nature odor and flavor. The yield of this oil depends on the quality and condition of the fruit, and a barrel of fruit (160 lb.) averages 2.5-3 ounces of oil.

         Yield has also been observed as 0.06% for cold-pressed oil and .15% for steam-distilled oil.

5. Citrus limetta, alternatively considered to be a cultivar of Citrus limon, C .x  limon ‘Limetta,’ is a species of citrus, commonly known as SWEET LIME, mousambi, sweet lemon, and sweet limetta. It is a member of the sweet lemons, and this only adds to the confusion of the naming of the Citrus. … 5

symbol from Jeanne Rose, The Aromatherapy Book …6

Contraindications ~ Limes, when handled and Lime oil cold pressed, will cause photosensitivity when used undiluted or if exposed to the sun directly after application. They contain furanocoumarins (natural chemicals found in some essential oils). Be wary. Lime peel oil steam-distilled does not have the plant components that cause photosensitivity.

7. PrimaFleur Lime oils – photo by JeanneRose

Organoleptic Characteristics:

Color:Colorless or very pale yellow AND when CP a hint of green to dark green
Viscosity:Non-viscous, watery
Taste:Bitter, acidic, sour
Intensity of Odor:5 and dries down to 3, then a 2.  It is a tart, pungent odor.


This work is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.

ODOR DESCRIPTION ~ The distilled lime is prepared by steam distilling whole fruits of (Citrus x aurantifolia (Christm). & Panz.)Swingle). This steam-distilled oil is more important in the fragrance and perfumery industry than cold-pressed oil. The more expensive cold-pressed oil is more like Lemon oil than what we associate organoleptically with Lime peel oil. Germacrene B has a woody-spicy odor that contributes to the fresh odor of Lime Peel oil. [Also includes pinene, linalool, citral, germacrene]4

                  The scent is clearly a tart citrus as a predominating note, with fresh fruit and herb as subsidiary notes and often a back note of floral and spice. “You will know it when you smell it!”

SOLUBILITY ~ In cold-pressed oils, because of the presence of natural waxes, it is not clearly soluble in 5 vol. of 90% alcohol. When Lime is steam-distilled, the oil is clearly soluble in 4 vol. and more of 90% alcohol.

CHEMICAL COMPONENTS ~ These results for Lime were determined using principal component analysis. Chemotypes have been identified for lime leaf oils as beta-pinene/limonene and Limonene/geranial/neral.

In Lime peel oils, four chemotypes are distinguished: 1) limonene, 2) Limonene/gamma-terpinene, 3) Limonene/beta-pinene/gamma-terpinene, and 4)  Limonene/gamma-terpinene/beta-pinene/oxygenated products.

            The morphological distinctions between some of the citrus are slight, and “much of the commercially significant striking degustatory (tasty) distinction rests on a subtlety, the presence and relative proportions of the two stereoisomers of limonene, one of which is bitter (as in lemon), the other sweet (as in Mandarin), resulting in the differing tastes of the flesh and juice.”—Mabberly.

The scent and taste chemistry depends on limonene, which has a chiral (stereoisomer) difference — both a left-turning molecule, (S) for sinistral with the sour smell of Lemon or Bitter Orange and a right-turning molecule (D), for right hand or clockwise or dextral, of the sweet smell/taste of Oranges. This is why we all, as lovers of essential oils and aromatherapy, need to learn some chemistry and good taxonomy.

“ecuelle a piquer tool.” … 8

HISTORICAL ~ Citrus was originally relieved of its fragrant rind oil by lacerating the peels by hand. The Description from the Department of Agriculture is: “The ecuelle-a-piquer is used in perfumery, “for lacerating the oil vessels in the rinds of orange, lemon, etc.; the oil collects in the hollow handle, whence it is poured off.” Department of Agriculture, 1899

            The ecuelle-a-piquer, a perfumery tool or extracting tool used to extract oils from citrus or orange rind, is a large funnel made of copper with its inner layers tinned. The inner layer has numerous pointed metal needles just long enough to penetrate the epidermis of the ring. The lower stem is a receiver for the oil and is used as a handle…. Now the fresh lemon or lime is placed in the bowl and rotated repeatedly, the oil glands punctured (scarified) and the oil drops into the handle.”  — Source: Department of Agriculture Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture 1898 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1899)

In Montserrat, the Foxes Bay Works, workers seen Ecuelling limes. … 9

INTERESTING FACTS ~ Use Lime oil much in the same way as Lemon oil, although it is more tart than Lemon oil, and with a ‘brighter’ scent, it blends well with Lemon oil. I have one old herb book that says, “inhale the scent of Lime oil to stimulate the muscles of the eye.” How this works, I do not know.

Lime oil photo by JeanneRoseã… 10


Lime oil is used as an astringent and antiseptic, and in perfumery, smells light and bright. Lime oil is somewhat a decongestant, a sedative that treats queasy headaches. It is used In men’s fragrances, and as a general  antispasmodic.


PHYSICAL USES & HOW USED ~ Skin care and body care. Perfumery. Massage oils for scent. It is  anti-infectious, antiseptic, antiviral, and somewhat stimulant. 

            Application – Lime oil has great application  in skin care products for its astringency for oily skin and is used for its tart scent particularly in men’s perfumery.

            Ingestion – Do not drink Lime oil. There is no vitamin C or ascorbic acid in the oil.

            Inhalation – Lime oil is sometimes used in a diffusor with other respiratory oils for respiratory infections.

EMOTIONAL/ENERGETIC USES (AP OR IN) ~ The essential oil is diluted with calming oils and used by inhalation to calm the nervous system and for insomnia and nightmares.
Energetically, it is too energizing to be used in meditation, but it is helpful if you wish to concentrate on something in particular. In spells it is used to freshen, purify, and cleanse an object or tool.

DIFFUSE/DIFFUSION ~ Diffused as a disinfectant in sick rooms and to protect against contagious ailments. Lime oil works best when it is in a blend with other oils that also are both gentle and disinfectant. Try Rosemary/Lime, or Lime/Lemon, or Black Pepper/Lime.   All interesting with unique scents.                        


BLENDING ~ Lime oil, both cold-pressed and steam-distilled, blends with other citrus as well as oils with a citrus scent such as Clary Sage and Citronella but also to brighten up deep floral absolutes such as Champa, and tame spicy oils such as Ginger and Black Pepper. It can add a bright touch of citrus to an overly sweet floral perfume.

            Citrus Notes ~ Citrus oils are used in the perfumery business to impart a fresh, sparkling note to any blend. They are usually not overpowering. They can be used in up to 25% as the base for a classic type of eau de cologne. Citrus oils harmonize with many other essential oils, and they are used in different concentrations in almost all scent blends and modern perfumes.  

>In combination with Lavender oil, citrus oils are the base for English Lavender which is an 1826 creation.<  High concentrations of citrus oils are in Chanel No. 5 (1921). Also of importance are the citrus oils in pop drinks like Coca-Cola and others.<


HYDROSOL ~ I have used Lime Hydrosol and found it very pleasant in scent and useful as an astringent on oily skin. The hydrosol can be added to non-alcoholic drinks for a pleasant acidic citrus taste. Add only a teaspoonful until you know how much taste you wish in your tea or drink.

            If you place the Lime hydrosol into a spray bottle, you can spray the inside of a cocktail glass to add a bit of flavor and tartness to your drink — try with Margarita, Daiquiri, Mojito, Cosmopolitan or Gimlet.

         Read Harvest to Hydrosol, a book by Ann Harman. She has published several Lime hydrosol GC/MS; one in her book and others at her Circle H website. These are an excellent source of information about the chemistry of the hydrosols. One Lime Hydrosol GC/MS with 0.0259% oil in the hydrosol shows a large quantity of a-terpineol, terpinene-4-ol and other monoterpenols as well as geranial and neral (aldehydes) and more. Every distillation will yield a slightly different chart depending on the species or variety being distilled.

11.Limes x 4 – photo by JeanneRose


HERBAL USES OF LIME ~ Lime juice is high in (sour) limonene and ascorbic acid and is high in beta- carotene and considered helpful for cancer prevention and is drunk with water for diarrhea and cramps and used externally as a wash for dandruff.

            “Distilled lime oil is the chief flavoring ingredient of carbonated nonalcoholic beverages such as Ginger ale, cola drinks and ice cream and baked goods and candy7.—Guenther vol. III

Kaffir Lime –Thai food has a unique fragrance because of the addition of this small, knobbly, rough-skinned citrus. Both the rind of the fruit and the equally perfumed leaves sliced into thin threads or lightly bruised and left whole when added to curries is a defining aromatic touch. The leaves, if you’ve bought more than you can use in a recipe, freeze well for future use. Or, if you like, drop a couple of leaves into a gin and tonic, a mojito, or a pitcher of lemonade for an exotic twist.

12.Photo by Jeanne Rose


“Lemon and Orange oils and other citrus even improve after a year or two of cold storage in that some of the dissolved waxes separate from the oil and may be removed easily by filtration. The resulting oils are more soluble and produce clearer extracts. Neither odor nor flavor is impaired if the oils are kept in tin-lined fully filled drums.”7

KEY USE~ Oil of Food & Beverage

13. Personal drawing for a JeanneRose Book



TOP NOTE  is 25 drops total of a combination of Linden, Bergamot, and white grapefruit
   Bridge of 1 drop of Lime preferably (Keffir Lime) or Lime CP. A little goes a long way.

HEART NOTE is 25 drops of Patchouli and “sugar”. The ‘Sugar” is something that we make in class and is an equal combination of Pink Grapefruit and yellow Lemon, with a bit of Neroli, Patchouli, and Tangerine made to suit the individual perfumer.
   Bridge of 1 drop Spearmint       
BASE NOTE of 25 drops of Oakmoss and Sarsaparilla (mostly Oakmoss).                                          FIXATIVE NOTE is the Oakmoss, which will hold and fix this scent that Bret called “Mojito”.

            >75 drops total + 228 drops cane or orange spirits. This makes a 25% scent to 75% EtOH<

            Make the scent, succuss it, age it, succuss again, add the neutral spirits, succuss again, age and then smell, bottle, and label.


TOP NOTE is Neroli 8 and
Bergamot 8
            Bridge of Lime 2-4
HEART NOTE is Sandalwood 8 and Lavender 8 (which Lavender oil you use is very important)
            Bridge of Cedar-wood 4
BASE NOTE is Basil 8 and

Clove 1-2

            Total about 50 drops, let this age for 2 weeks, then adjust the formula to suit yourself, add the 95% neutral grape spirits as a diluent – about 150 drops for a 25% perfume percentage or 300 drops for a cologne percentage. Let it age again for several weeks before using.

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ~ Limes, when handled or cut, and Lime oil cold-pressed are photosensitizing when used undiluted upon exposure to the sun directly after application. They contain furanocoumarins (natural chemicals found in certain essential oils). Be wary. Lime peel oil steam-distilled does not have the plant components that cause photosensitivity.

Key Limes   – photo by JeanneRose… 14

SCIENCE ARTICLE ~ “Even though citrus is a common fruit and easy to use daily, it contains many beneficial substances for human health. It may be a miracle fruit. The phytochemical substances such as alkaloids, carotenoids, coumarins, essential oils, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and triterpenoids exist in citrus abundantly. All these substances have a range of pharmacological properties, especially anticancer properties. C. x aurantifolia was studied for its effect against carcinogenesis by mechanisms such as stopping cancer cell mobility in the circulatory system, inhibiting metastasis, blocking the angiogenesis, and Inducing tumor suppressor gene and apoptosis. The present review suggests that C. x aurantifolia consumption may be used for cancer therapy.5.”

1 A classification for edible Citrus (Rutaceae) D.J. Mabberley, unknown date
3 A classification for edible Citrus (Rutaceae) D.J. Mabberley, 1997
4 Ohloff, Günther:  SCENT AND FRAGRANCES: Springer-Verlag. 1990. Translated by Pickenhagen and Lawrence {this is the main source}|
5 Pharmacogn Rev. 2016 Jul-Dec; 10(20): 118–122.doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.194043. Anticancer Activity of Key LimeCitrus aurantifoliabyNithithep Narang, and Wannee Jiraungkoorskul
6 Changes in the Peel Oil Composition of Kagzi Lime (Citrus x aurantifolia Swingle) during Ripening
7Guenther: THE ESSENTIAL OILS, volume III, Citrus oils: Krieger. 1949.

Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol [ ]
Mabberley, D.J., Mabberley’s Plant Book, 2008 Third Edition with 2014 updates, Cambridge University Press
Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.
Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book.
Williams, David G.: THE CHEMISTRY OF ESSENTIAL OILS: Micelle Press. 1996.

Jeanne Rose copyright 2023 ~  May not be reproduced without permission.

SOURCES …….Essential Oils and Absolutes – offers hundreds of products, botanical essential oils, and extracts – including many that are rare and precious. All oils are obtained from aromatic plants grown with integrity and care. They promise you that everything you purchase is of the highest quality and 100% guaranteed. Everyone is welcome to purchase oils and take advantage of bulk pricing.           
Hydrosols Source – I regularly use the trusted distilling skills of April Treona Lancaster of for many specialized organically-grown and locally sourced hydrosols.

Please support the people who support the earth.

Courtesy of … 15



GRAPEFRUIT oil – fruit

Grapefruit EO & Fruit ~ A complete description, country of origin, characteristics, skin care, formulas, and recipes on how to use this oil, the fruit, as well as facts and fantasies not yet known.


By Jeanne Rose ~ 2023

Grapefruits and a bottle of the oil superimposed.

Essential oils courtesy of PrimaFleur Botanicals

COMMON NAME/LATIN BINOMIAL ~ Citrus x aurantium (2015), Citrus x paradisi, sometimes called Citrus medica.

______OTHER COMMON NAME/NAMING INFORMATION ~ The Grapefruit group of citrus originates from a back cross of C. x paradisi with a female of C. maxima (Pomelo) and a more up-to-date Latin binomial is Citrus x aurantium.

______FAMILY ~ Rutaceae, the Citrus family which includes Bergamot, Buddha Hand, Citron, Clementine, Combava, Kaffir Lime, Lemon, Lime, Mandarin, Neroli of Bitter Orange flowers, Orange, Petitgrain, Pomelo, Tangerine, Yuzu, and more.

ORIGINS ~ South Africa, USA, Iran, Brazil, and Israel.  Grapefruit originated in China or maybe the West Indies. Disputed history shows “careful search has not found it a native of the Olde Worlde”5.

Most think of Grapefruit as a hybrid that originated in Barbados accidentally from Oranges and Pomelos, both of which were imported Asian fruits during the seventeenth century.

ENDANGERED OR NOT ~ Not currently.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF Grapefruit PLANT HABITAT AND GROWTH ~ This is a small tree with dark, evergreen leaves and large, creamy white flowers and large, yellow, or pinkish fruits that ripen from December to March.    Grapefruit has a thick rind and large sections. Its skin is called the flavedo and is thick, firm, and pleasantly fragrant; the pulp is white to red in color and acidic.

Grapefruit trees produce the best quality fruit on sandy, relatively fertile soils in a warm humid climate. Supplementary fertilization is necessary in practically all producing areas. The trees come into bearing early and should produce commercially profitable crops by the fourth to sixth year after they are planted in the orchard. Mature trees may produce remarkably large crops—585 to 675 kg (1,290 to 1,490 pounds) of fruit per tree. Grapefruit consists of flavedo (outer layer with essential oil glands), albedo (white inner rind) and oval-shaped meat.2

photo of various types of grapefruit and their colors.

PORTION OF PLANT USED IN DISTILLATION, HOW DISTILLED, EXTRACTION METHODS AND YIELDS ~ The fragrant oil is located deep within the flavedo of the thick peel. The Grapefruit does not produce large quantities of oil because of this thickness from the flavedo. Guenther maintains that 22 boxes of
Grapefruit yield about 1 lb. of oil, and one box holds 85 lb. of fruit5. The fresh peel is cold-pressed and contains up to 90% limonene and a wax.

            Yield – 0.5-1.0%



Color of EOAlmost colorless for white Grapefruit; yellow to red color for pink Grapefruit; and dark yellow  red for ruby red Grapefruit
ViscosityNon-Viscous and like water
TasteBitter, sour, umami (tastes like the tart, bitter rind of a Grapefruit with the white, rough, ridged, and pebbly skin.)
Intensity of Odor 1-10 with 1= lowest4
Tenacity of Odor4 – An important part of many perfumes as the volatile top note.  Gives a fresh burst to the perfume and then fades into the heart, and finally disperses within the base note.
Grapefruit sensory characteristics of the cold-pressed scent

______Language is important in recognizing smells.  An important part of perfumery training is to develop, in common, an odor language based on olfactory standards.  The possession of such an odor language increases the powers of discrimination. If you can name it, you own it.

The peel of (Citrus paradisi Macfaden) or Grapefruit oil is cold pressed.  The fresh, fruity top-note is due to p-menth-1-en-8-thiol.  This component is present only in very low amounts.  Grapefruit oil is sesquiterpene rich, which is unusual in citrus oils.  Nootkatone is mainly responsible for the odor of the Grapefruit and contributes to the bitter flavor of the juice.  Linaloöl oxides, is in many essential oils, and constitute the second most important class of compounds.  Also found in the essential oil is epoxycaryophyllene, first found in Verbena oil, possesses a pleasant woody, balsamic odor. “(Scent & Fragrance by Gunther Ohloff)3

bottles of cold-pressed and distilled oil of Grapefruit in various colors.


 ~ This work is supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals. ~


PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES ~ Solubility ~ The oil is incompletely soluble in 90% alcohol up to 10 vol. owing to the separation of its natural wax.5

Chemical Components ~ D-Limonene, Gamma-Terpinene, Nootketone, Cadinene, Neral, methyl anthranilate and Citronellal. Grapefruit mercaptan, a sulfur-containing terpene, is one of the substances which has a strong influence on the taste and odor of Grapefruit. Nootkatone, aka, nootketone, is a natural organic compound and is the most important and expensive aromatic of grapefruit. It is a sesquiterpene and a ketone. Nootketone was previously thought to be one of the main chemical components of the smell and flavor of grapefruits.

~ ~ ~


GRAPEFRUIT fruit and EOis for both IG=ingestion or IN=inhalation or AP=application. We eat Grapefruit as food and take it as a tonic juice for the gall bladder. The cold-pressed oil of pink Grapefruit is a tart, sweet, and warming while the white Grapefruit is tart, and cooling. We use these oils as an astringent externally for skin and hair de-greaser, and inhaled for refreshment, and as a spray or in the diffuser to disinfectant a room.

            APPLICATION –  The cold-pressed oil is astringent, antiseptic, depurative, and anti-infectious and is used to degrease oily skin or hair, as part of a tonic, cream, or mask, to use as a scent in skincare products, and as an important component in perfumery in the top note.

Do not use Grapefruit oil or any citrus oil in your bath as it will burn upon contact with your sensitive skin and lady parts. Remember essential oils float in water, and when you step into the tub, the floating oils come into contact to whatever parts of your skin they touch first.


Grapefruit & Elemi Skin Cream for Oily Skin

I like to make a simple skin cream with a few simple ingredients.
Start with 4 oz by volume of  Coconut or other solid oil
Add 1 oz (by volume) of Marula or Argan oil
Add 5 drops Grapefruit Oil and 5 drops Elemi Oil
Add a small scoop (1 T.) of Aloe Vera pulp (no peel)
And blend with a hand blender.
That’s it! Use once a day after cleansing.
Keep refrigerated.

jars of creamy skin cream

Grapefruit and Elemi Skin Cream

         Grapefruit Seed Extract – Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) or citrus seed extract is a product made from the seeds and pulp of grapefruit. This product considered to have health benefits may be a natural antibiotic, antiseptic, disinfectant, and preservative. It is used to promote the healing of almost any atypical skin condition.  Apparently, this product DOES NOT WORK AS SOME CLAIM as a preservative.  However, it can be added to mouthwash and mouth tonics.

         “Grapefruit Extract (GSE) is made by first converting grapefruit seeds and pulp into a very acidic liquid. This liquid is loaded with polyphenolic compounds including quercetin, helperidin, and more. Some of these compounds, for example, are used industrially as antimicrobials but are toxic to animal life…”  The suggestion is that for a preservative would be better if one used 10% alcohol of 95% neutral grain or grape spirits. (available from


            INGESTION – The juice of Grapefruit is a popular food source especially for breakfast and is effective in controlling sugar metabolism and as a slimming aid. It is a tonic for the gall bladder, and it is digestive, antioxidant and depurative. Studies have shown the pink and red varieties of Grapefruit contain higher amounts of antioxidants than the yellow or white kind.

            PHYSICAL USES & HOW USED (IG or AP) – Externally, Grapefruit oil in a blend alleviates muscle fatigue and stiffness. I use it a facial toner for its astringency, or on acne, as it stimulates lifeless skin. Apply Grapefruit oil neat as a treatment for herpes, in various applications on the body as it aids in cellulite reduction, and fluid retention, and use it as a disinfectant.       

DIFFUSE/DIFFUSION ~ Add to your inhalation blends for uses as a tonic, restorative, and antidepressant.

            EMOTIONAL/ENERGETIC USE ~ Inhaled, Grapefruit oil may relieve hangovers, headaches, mental exhaustion, anxiety, and depression, and used externally or by inhalation in a blend for menstrual difficulties, such as PMS and menopause.  The scent is very uplifting and antiseptic and makes for a great air freshener.

 Formula for Tattered Nerves.

Use equal amounts of Bergamot, Grapefruit (white or pink) and Lemon, about 30 drops of each in a 1-dram vial and to the final formula add 1 drop of Nutmeg. Succuss and apply to a hanky from which you will inhale as needed.

            RITUAL USE ~ Grapefruit along with other citrus is for the 3rd Chakra, the spleen area, it vibrates in the color yellow, and the complementary stone is citrine. It is uplifting and calming as well.


            YOGA PRACTICE ~ Tricia Cruz has a yoga practice and uses essential oils for various purpose. One of her blends called “Clean and Clear” contains Pink Grapefruit/Rosemary (Citrus paradisi/Salvia rosmarinus officinalis). She sprinkles this on her towel to improve focus and clarity in her practice.

KEEPING QUALITIES OF CITRUS OILS ~ “Citrus oils kept in well-filled, well-stoppered, dark-colored bottles and stored in a cool, dark place retain their original delicate flavor for years, but access to air or light, especially in the presence of traces of water, easily spoils citrus oils.”5  They oxidize, get an acid character, and piney odor and viscosity and specific gravity increase.



Blends Best ~ Grapefruit blends with many oils including Basil, especially the non-carvacrol types; all Citrus oils and citrus smelling oils such as Clary Sage but especially Bergamot and Lemon; spicey oils such as Black Pepper, Cardamom, Clove, Coriander, Frankincense, Ginger and others; conifer oils such as Cypress and some Junipers and especially true Cedar (Cedrus atlantica);  grass oils such as Citronella, Palmarosa and Vetivert; flower oils such as Chamomile and Roman Chamomile, Lavender, Neroli,  Jasmine, Ylang and Rose; and herbaceous oils such as Peppermint and Rosemary (verbenone type).

             “Grapefruit essential oil is quite useful in Citrus compositions and for all modifications of citrus notes in perfumery.It is used in the Top note in citrus and cologne blends with Bergamot to impart fresh non-green sharpness, body and tenacity.”3  

            White Grapefruit is a crisper scent than the pink or Ruby red Grapefruit.

Pink Grapefruit oil and a pink grapefruit.

Grapefruit oil courtesy of Prima Fleur Botanicals

BLENDING WITH CITRUS NOTES ~ In the perfumery business the citrus notes impart a fresh, sparkling note to any blend.  They are usually not overpowering.  They are in the blends up to 25% as the base for classic types of eau de cologne and other perfumes.  Citrus oils harmonize with many other essential oils, and I use them in different concentrations in almost all scent blends and modern perfumes.  

            “In combination with Lavender oil, citrus oils are the base for English Lavender which is an 1826 creation. High concentrations of citrus oils are in Chanel No. 5 (1921).  Also, of importance are the citrus oils in soda drinks like Coca-Cola and others.”

beautiful bottle of perfume


With a Grapefruit top note

Top note: 30 drops of a mixture of Grapefruit oil and Mandarin oil.
If you use the white Grapefruit or the green Mandarin, your perfume will be brighter and cooler than if you use pink Grapefruit and red Mandarin.

Heart note: 20 drops of a mixture of Rose absolute and Orris root

Base note: 10 drops of Sandalwood oil and Ylang Extra

Remember that there are 3 kinds of Grapefruit, 3 kinds of Mandarin, 20 kinds of Rose absolute, 4 kinds of Sandalwood. Depending on which you use will result in exponentially many different scents,
all pleasant but all different.

YOU will add your Citrus Day Perfume of 60 drops of scent blend to 180 drops of spirits (95%) of neutral grape, grain, or for a true scent experience of citrus, use Orange spirits.7.  []

quart of citrus vinegar

Citrus Vinegar with white and pink Grapefruit peel ~
1 peel of pink Grapefruit + 1 peel of white Grapefruit + 1 peel on Mandarin


Citrus Vinegar – An Herbal-Home Remedy for Cleaning and Mold Removal.

            I have been making this vinegar for housecleaning for over 30 years. I have written about it in my Herbal Studies Course, online and in articles. In 1990, I had to clean the smelly walls of a home where someone had lived for 30 years without repainting or cleaning. They had a septic system and rather than using toxic chemicals, I used only Citrus Grapefruit Vinegar with Rosemary Hydrosol. The walls came clean, the septic system was undamaged, and the place took on a fresh and clean odor.

            TO MAKE: Purchase a gallon of the cheapest white vinegar (best to buy in glass). As you eat lemons, oranges and especially grapefruit, use only the peel (flavedo) and roll the peels up and put into the vinegar bottle. Your vinegar will get the added benefits of the antibacterial citrus peels as well as the clean citrus fragrance. It is good to start with the peel of one Grapefruit, one Orange and one Lemon – but anything will do. Try to remove as much albedo (white underside of peel) as you can. When the vinegar is all gone, the bottle will be full of peels, and you can just discard them in your compost pile and recycle the bottle. You can also add 16 oz of water to the now empty citrus/vinegar bottle and make a spray to clean small surfaces.

I use this Citrus vinegar to clean all surfaces, stoves, porcelain, wood floors, wood chopping tables, dusty woodwork, door knobs, etc. This will clean and kill mold in your bathroom, basement, attic, and other closed places. It will deodorize and kill any bad odor.

~ ~ ~

You can also make a good cleanser and deodorizer by wiping the porcelain surfaces with baking soda and then adding the vinegar from your Citrus Vinegar bottle.  You can keep drains clear by using baking soda and vinegar. Every two weeks pour 1-2 cups baking soda down all the drains and follow with 1 cup of plain white or citrus vinegar. Follow 2 hours later by pouring 2 quarts of boiling water down the drain.  It will fizz, bubble, and keep the drains funk free and smelling good.

HYDROSOL ~ I have not yet had the opportunity to experience a Grapefruit hydrosol.

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol is distilled specifically for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components, lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using the dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.


paragraph about interesting fact of Grapefruit naming from an old book.

INTERESTING FACTS ~ Some histories suggest that Grapefruit “was introduced into Barbados West Indies from China by Captain Shaddock and the fruit was thereafter known as ‘Shaddock fruit’.  In 1809 the seeds traveled with Spanish settlers to the United States. Grapefruit was in the United States commercially beginning in 1880.  In many parts of the world the waste products of this and other citrus fruits are ground and used as animal fodder”1

Rising up - a logo of Jeanne Rose

Jeanne Rose’s Grapefruit Tomato Tales EO:

I made over 25 different aromatherapy kits over the last 35 years. One of these I called, “The Woman’s Kit” and it contained Grapefruit and Clary Sage. I used the Grapefruit/Clary Sage mix as follows: Inhaled is an adrenal stimulant, eased depression, to reduce hot flashes, to help the new mother relax. It was mildly intoxicating and with Geranium was a great inhalant for menopause symptoms, to ease nervousness, and to soothe PMS symptoms. This mixture was relaxing and euphoric and with Ylang-Ylang was an excellent inhaler and application for menstrual irregularities and for ‘grounding’.

            Externally, this combination regenerates skin, reduces wrinkles and when you add Rosemary oil is applied to hair roots to stimulate growth. I used a drop or two in baths for health and relaxation, diluted or with Clary Sage hydrosol to spray on face for hot skin and during heat waves. In a massage blend it assisted in the labor process and seemed to strengthen the inner organs. I consider Grapefruit and Clary Sage to be very good for all menstrual disorders.

            Internally, I occasionally used one drop in warm water as gargle for sore throat.


ABSTRACT/SCIENTIFIC DATA ~ Nootkatone, a characteristic constituent of grapefruit, stimulates energy metabolism and prevents diet-induced obesity by activating AMPK AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that is implicated in the control of energy metabolism. 2010 –

MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE OF GRAPEFRUIT JUICE ~ Grapefruit juice is consumed widely in today’s health conscious world as a protector against cardiovascular diseases and cancers. It has however, been found to be an inhibitor of the intestinal cytochrome P – 450 3A4 system, which is responsible for the first pass metabolism of many drugs. The P – glycoprotein pump, found in the brush border of the intestinal wall which transports many of these cytochrome P – 450 3A4 substrates, has also been implicated to be inhibited by grapefruit juice. By inhibiting these enzyme systems, grapefruit juice alters the pharmacokinetics of a variety of medications, leading to elevation of their serum concentrations.4

KEY USE ~ Antiseptic, skin care and tonic for the gall bladder.

photo of pink-fleshed Pomelo fruits

RESOURCES ~ Many thanks to for the lovely Grapefruit oils they supplied for my organoleptic studies.

1 Essential Aromatherapy, p. 137.    
3Ohloff, Günther:  SCENT AND FRAGRANCES: Springer-Verlag. 1990. Translated by Pickenhagen and Lawrence
5Guenther: THE ESSENTIAL OILS, volume III, Citrus oils: Krieger. 1949

6 Aspects of the antimicrobial efficacy of grapefruit seed extract and its relation to preservative substances
contained. (PMID:10399191)
7.Organic Orange Sprits from
 Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose. 1992
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, 2000
Rose, Jeanne: 375 ESSENTIAL OILS AND HYDROSOLS; Frog, Ltd. 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Staff of L.H. Baily Hortorium, Hortus Third: A Concise Dictionary of Plants. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York, 1976.

General Resources

•          Williams, David G.: THE CHEMISTRY OF ESSENTIAL OILS: Micelle Press. 1996.
•            Another Fresh Start – Lunar New Year. Leaflet, Newsletter of the Strybing Arboretum. Winter 2002, Volume 26, No. 1.


Safety Precautions ~ “A phototoxic reaction typically shows up as an exaggerated sunburn, usually occurring within 24 hours of sun exposure: as stated by the Skin Cancer Foundation. The primary essential oil culprits are typically cold-pressed citrus oils: Bergamot, Grapefruit, Lemon, Lime, Orange,
Wild Orange, and Tangerine.

            If you take statins or heart medications do not eat or drink Grapefruit unless you discuss this with your medical doctor.


Grapefruit tree flower


Home Perfumery – Part 2 ~ Synopsis ~ How do you make perfume? Here is a plan to work at home and how to begin, how to start, and what supplies you need. Use naturals. Here is what do you need to know.


Read this ~ part 1 ….

and Read this ~ &

part 2 Home Perfumery

Showing the work table in the home perfumery room
work table in the perfumery

Use them; use your oils by making blends, perfumes and scents. Always write everything down. Remember the secret word — time —. It takes time for a scent to develop. This means that you make your Bases to make the Accords to make the Notes to make the final perfume. Each step along the way, allow the bases, the accord, the notes, the perfume to develop with time. Be patient. [A base note is a note, it is not the bases.]

    George Askinson was a chemist and had something to say about the blending of perfume materials.
“Cologne water of the most superior and incomparable quality is made by dissolving the essential oils in the alcohols and then distilling it, then adding the rosemary and Neroli to the distillate.”


Perfume bottles, and a ceramic plate
Perfume bottles, ceramic plate, and a pyramid

It is not the number of oils that determines the fineness of a perfume,
but the manner in which certain odors are combined.” … George Askinson, 1865

Describing a well-balanced perfume
WHAT IS A WELL-BALANCED PERFUME? – JeanneRose “Natural Perfumery”


DO: Be selective of where you purchase your essential oils.  The quality of essential oils varies widely from company to company.  Be sure to ask if the essential oils are 100% pure, natural, without carrier oil and not adulterated. See the Source List, Ch. VI of The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations.

DO: Pay special attention to all safety information on all essential oils that you use. Again, cross-reference the oils you are using in your textbook The Aromatherapy Book, p. 64, for any cautions the oil may have.   This is even more important if you have a medical condition or are pregnant.

DO:  Write down everything you do when blending.  Keep a notebook handy to jot down notes, ideas and recipes for future reference.  There is nothing more maddening than trying to recreate a blend you are fond of only to have forgotten some of the ingredients.

DO NOT: Do not buy perfume/fragrance/scented oils. They are NOT the same as essential oils from plants. Perfume oils are synthetic, they are made of chemicals; they do not offer the therapeutic benefits of essential oils. If you use aromatherapy simply to enjoy the aroma, essential oils offer therapeutic benefits while synthetic oils may make you sick. Remember, perfume oils do not have any therapeutic benefits.

DO NOT: Do not buy essential oil products with rubber dropper tops. Essential oils are concentrated, volatile and will turn the rubber gummy. Be careful to wipe up any essential oils that spill on any wood or plastic surface. They will stain or remove the finish. Do store your essential oils in glass bottles with orifice reducers or dropper inserts. Store in a cool, dark place, in a box or in the refrigerator.


Storage of Essential Oils

Essential oils do not go rancid, as they do not have any fatty acids. They can oxidize (change their chemistry). To protect your oils, they should be kept protected from the light either in clear glass in a lightproof container or in amber or cobalt blue bottles and away from heat and the sun. The non-science that says only amber bottles is not science, but people crowd sourcing incorrect information. Keep in clear, colorless glass and you can see what you have; and keep these bottles in a box or in a cupboard when not in use.

Blue oils (blue-colored oils) should be stored in the freezer. (Blue Chamomile, Blue Tansy, Blue Sage, Blue Artemis, Roman Chamomile, Yellow Chamomile)

Citrus oils can be stored in the refrigerator. (Orange, Lemon, Grapefruit, Yuzu, Petitgrain, Neroli, Lime, etc.). The waxes that are in these expressed oils may settle out into tiny white bits. This is okay, just filter out those white bits.

Most oils should be stored in a cool, dark place, wine cellar or refrigerator. (Rosemary, Lavender, Marjoram, Thyme, etc.)

Resinous oils may be stored anywhere but not in the cold. (Frankincense, Myrrh, Labdanum, Cistus)



Perfume Breakdown© is developed by Jeanne Rose

A chart showing how a perfume develops in layers like music
Perfume is built in layers like music

the home perfumery table showing textbooks, vocabulary of odor bottles, scent blotters and scents
The Home Perfumery  Table with reference books and essentials

Writing a Formula

NAME OF PERFUME ____________________________  DATE _____________ Your Name ______________

writing a formula
Writing a Formula by JeanneRose


Here is a list of what was covered in one of our previous Natural Botanical Perfumery Classes. We will be able to do as much each year the class is given.

projects that are completed in a class.
PERFUMERY CLASS – Completed Projects in 8-days

Bibliography and Book Resource ~
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin
Calkin, Robert R. and J. Stephan Jellinek. Perfumery Practice and Principles, Wiley Interscience, 1994.
Guenther, Ernest: The Essential Oils, volumes I-VI,  Krieger. 1949.
Mabberley, D. J. The Plant Book
McMahon, Christopher. AROMAtherapy 2037, Fall 97. “Tuberose Treasure”
———. AROMAtherapy 2037, Summer 97. “Extraction of Floral Concretes”
———. AROMAtherapy 2037, Winter 97/98. “Mimosa Harvesting”.
Ohloff, Günther:  Scent and Fragrances, Springer-Verlag 1990. Translated by Pickenhagen and Lawrence
Piesse, G. W. Septimus. The Art of Perfumery.  1867
Rose, Jeanne: 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols; Frog, Ltd. 1999.
Natural Botanical Perfumery Workbook • 2018
Writing of the Rose, 1998
AROMAtherapy 2037. Winter 1997/98
The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations 1996.
—  Herbs & Things, Last Gasp. 2002
—  The World of Aromatherapy, 1996.
Thompson, C. J. S. The Mystery and Lure of Perfume.  Lippincott. 1927.
Wildwood, Christine. Creative Aromatherapy. 1993.
Williams, David G.: The Chemistry of Essential Oils, Micelle Press. 1996.
The Oxford English Dictionary.


picture of the perfumery workbook
Perfumery Workbook

Available from

Source List ~
Acme Vial


Synopsis ~ How do you make perfume? Here is a plan to work at home and how to begin, how to start, and what supplies you need. Use naturals. Here is what do you need to know.

Sorting Roses for your perfumery


part 1. By Jeanne Rose, 2020

INTRODUCTION ~ So you want to make perfume? You plan to work at home and just don’t know how to begin. How do you start? What supplies will you need? Are you going to use naturals or synthetics? Do you know the difference? What do you need to know?

Home perfumery is gaining widespread popularity all over the world and is gradually moving towards the mainstream. It is especially strong as a niche scent concept in the United States of America. The use of scent as perfume cuts across gender, social, and racial classes, because it is emotional, it is physical, it is social, and it can smell divine. Annual sales of basic ingredients and perfume end products are staggering. An important driver in this upsurge in scent acceptance is due to its status of being thought a natural product with the people thinking it is low toxicity, it really works, it is very accessible, easy to do, prepare and use.

        Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have attempted to mask or enhance their own odor by using perfume, which they hope will emulate nature’s pleasant smells. Many natural and man-made materials have been used to make perfume to apply to the skin and clothing, to put in cleaners and cosmetics, or to scent the air. Because of differences in body chemistry, temperature, and body odors, no perfume will smell exactly the same on any two people. The United States is the world’s largest perfume market with annual sales totaling several billions of dollars.

            This article is about making perfumes with natural, botanical ingredients – only. No synthetics.


Jeanne Rose workspace in the perfumery

Getting to Know Your SPACE – Oils

Space, Supplies-Oils, Preparation, Recall, Focus, Time

SPACE ~ What You Need

If you are making perfumes from natural ingredients at home – you will need to think about your basic space and equipment.

Make a space to do it. It helps to designate a special area set-aside for storing your equipment and blending your perfumes.   It should be a well-ventilated, well-lit area or room.  However, air conditioning is not advised as it takes the scents out of the air. Designate a specific long table or desk as your workspace and demand no one will put any food or objects on it.   There should be shelves or cabinets for storing your essential scents and finished fragrances; ideally, they should be stored in a room where the temperature is about 55° (a wine-type room).  Store your essential oils in glass bottles, I prefer clear glass to be able to examine and look at the colors of the oils, but they should ultimately be kept in a cool, dark storage space.  All oils should be out of direct sunlight or covered in boxes.  Oils/absolutes should not be subjected to changes in temperature.

        The kitchen is not the best place for blending your perfumes, even though it may seem ideal because of access to cabinets, a table, sink, running water and utensils.  And working around an open flame and stove burners can be hazardous as essential oils and alcohol can explode. 


Supplies are important. Make sure you have the scents and the back-up supplies.

SUPPLIES ~ Have the correct supplies and tools at hand for blending to make the process easier and more precise. The following is an idea list of perfumery supplies that you should have at hand:

1-dozen small glass cups (2-inch) or shot-size glasses with measurement on the side
Adhesive labels – small
Air that is fresh for clearing nose; Coffee beans, salt or piece of wool may work but are NOT necessary.
Alcohol for cleaning droppers or vials; use cheap isopropyl EtOH; then rinse with clear water and dry, Alcohol for rinsing, a quick Grape spirit rinse using scent-free alcohol.
Alcohol for dilution — cane, corn, pear, wheat or grape depending on the odor being diluted.
Apron or Lab coat to wear over your clothing and shoes that cover your feet for protection.
Bags – small to medium to large plastic Ziploc bags
Beakers for measuring from 5 ml to 150 ml
BooksThe Aromatherapy Book, Application & Inhalation; 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols; Natural Botanical 
Perfumery Workbook, by Jeanne Rose to give you the basic information on the essential oils & absolutes.
Bottles and Vials – you will need a varied selection of clear, colorless bottles and vials, particularly the
½-dram, 1-dram, 2 -dram, 4-dram vials from Acme Vial in California. Also get the orifice reducers.
Bowl – small (I prefer thin glass bowls on the smaller size)
Clock with a second hand or a timer
Cotton balls – get the larger size or the flat cotton discs
Dishwashing detergent
Glass vials or bottles (various sizes) – see above
Labels – small ones. Label everything with contents, your name and the full date (include the year).
Measuring spoons or ear scoops (wooden or metal spoons to scoop out earwax, but you use for concrètes)
Pen and notebook or pad for writing down everything that you do.
Pencil/s – Pencils are needed to write labels as essential oils can dissolve ink or ball point markings.
Pipettes or droppers (plastic or glass). Find and use the ones that you prefer.
Scale, digital – to measure weight precisely to 0.005
Scent blotters
Scissors, sharp of a small size
Stirrers, glass works well or glass drink stirrers.
Towels, both paper and cotton
Vocabulary of Odor Kit© – to be able to describe odors. You will want to start with the

          “Basic 7 Vocabulary of Odor Kit©” and then graduate to the full

         Advanced 28 Vocabulary of Odor Kit©”. Available only from

Water or bowl of water


Alcohol, Neutral grape and grain spirits (for making perfumes, colognes, splashes)

Bases (make and keep as many as you want, label them fully with the ingredients)

Carrier oils (for alcohol -free perfumes)

Distilled water (for making splashes)

Alphabetical – Keep your products/oils/bases/accords in alphabetical order or by style you prefer.


Scent blotters

What Oils/Absolutes Should you have to START?
This Is A Simple Supply List to Start With…

1.Bergamot, I prefer the whole Bergamot not the bergaptene-free. – SD
2.Cardamom – SD
3.Cedarwood, Atlas – SD
4, Champaca CO2 or Osmanthus CO2
5.Clary Sage, Russia – SD
6.Cocoa Abs
7.Frankincense CO2, India
8.Geranium Abs (Pelargonium x asperum) Egypt or SD Pelargonium graveolens from Madagascar
9.Grapefruit, CP, Pink or white
10.Jasmine Abs, India
11.Lavender Abs or high-altitude SD Lavender
12.Neroli Extra, – SD
13.Labdanum Abs (diluted 50/50)
14.Orange, Wild or another citrus – SD                                                                   
15.Patchouli, Dark is best. Lighter color Patchouli has less scent. – SD
16.Petitgrain Abs
17.Rose Abs, Morocco
18.Spikenard, Green or Vetivert – SD
19.Vanilla Abs (you may need to do a 50/50 dilution on this one)
20.Ylang Ylang Complete, Fine – SD

ABS = absolute; CD = cold-pressed; CO2 = cold-pressed; SD = steam distilled
These 20 are good to start with but there are hundreds more that you can add. I prefer to use only pure and natural plant matter; the best that is available. I buy by quality and not by price and recommend you do the same. Mail-order. and are my go-to and recommended places.

Essential oils come in many beautiful colors

The above are the oils that are available to use in the JeanneRose Natural Botanical Perfumery class. You may choose to have all or only some of these in your perfumes.  This is an expensive undertaking so choose well. It may be best to dilute all your oils/absolutes to 50•50 with95% neutral grape spirits. That way you can blend and then at the end after your perfume has aged, just add an equal amount of the 95% neutral spirit to have a 25% blend of your perfume. Just right for application or can be further diluted to 10 or even 15% with the addition of more alcohol. Always age your perfume before making the decision. You can always dilute but you cannot make it stronger.

Have paper towels handy.  You will need scent blotters, pipettes, a pen, pencil and your notebook.  Do not wear any scent on your body and tie your hair back. Dress appropriately as if you were in a lab setting with your arms and shoulders and feet covered (against harmful lab spills).

Train the Memory by Developing the Limbic System through Smell


Know your oils/absolutes/concretes by their name, smell and intensity.
Throughout Steps 1 Through 6, Take Notes.


Step 1. Less is More. To get the full spectrum of odor you may wish to dilute everything to 50•50 with the appropriate type alcohol.

Step 2. Before you start to blend, you will want to get to know your library of scents.  Learn the Basic 7 Vocabulary of Odor© and the Advanced Circular 28 Vocabulary of Odor©. Read and memorize Chapter 3 of 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols called “Essential Oils are More Than Stinky”. This will tell you how to use the Advanced Circular Vocabulary of Odor©. You will need the “Advanced 28 Vocabulary of Odor Kit©” to properly do this and of course, natural odors to work with. (Use the chart)

  To do this you will need your scent blotters/fragrance strips.  Start with up to 5 oils.    Write the name of the oil on the scent blotter.  Also, write the time you used the scent blotter/strip and the date.  Put one drop of oil on the strip with its name on it (or dip your strip 2 ml into your selected oil).  Smell the strip briefly and note the fragrance.  Imagine it as a color.  Imagine it has a personality.   Record your impressions on the chart. If you did not know the fragrance name, what would you call this fragrance?  Sniff it again with your eyes closed.  Do you smell or see anything different?  Write this down in your notebook and note it on your Vocabulary of Odor© chart. Now put the strip away, label, and give you nose a chance to recover.  Repeat for each scent/fragrance you examine.  Describe them in words by your classification; by their Volatility, Strength, and Intensity. >See below<


You’ll want to do this exercise in stages.  No more than 4-5 individual oils at a time.  Save your other oils for later in the day, or the next day. 

Step 3:  After 30 minutes, go back to each scent.  Smell.  Are there other notes in the fragrance that you recognize?  Record your impressions and any changes that you notice.

Step 4.  Go back to your original 5 strips.     Cover the names and pick one.  Smell.  Do you recognize the fragrance?  Repeat this with the other 4 scents.  Familiarize yourself with your fragrances this way, until you can recognize each scent by name without looking at its bottle. “By their scent you will know them” …Jeanne Rose 1979

Step 5:  Two hours later, go back to each strip.  Pick one and smell.  How has it changed?

Step 6:  The next day, go back to each strip.  Pick one and smell.  Has it changed?  How has it changed?

You are learning the effect of dry down on each scent and how it may operate in your finished perfume.

Step 7: Let your scents rest, if making a blend, let the take time to integrate and to become a perfume. This does not happen in the moments that it takes to mix a drop of this or a drop of that.

TIME ~ It takes time to make a good perfume.

As George Askinson said, “It is not the number of oils that determines the fineness of a perfume, but the manner in which certain odors are combined”

. …Perfumes and Cosmetics — Their Preparation and Manufacture
By George W. Askinson, Dr. Chem.1865


The Entrance to Laurie Stern magical home perfumery – photo by JeanneRose

The Entrance to Laurie Stern magical home perfumery – photo by JeanneRose