WINTERGREEN ~ plant and oil

The bright red berries and green leaves have a distinctly pleasing wintergreen flavor.
Learn all about Wintergreen, description, extraction, and uses.

Close-up of Wintergreen leaves with new flower buds
Close-up of Wintergreen with new flower buds


Jeanne Rose – December 2021

Introduction For many, roaming the woods and eating Wintergreen berries is a memory from childhood. The bright red berries and leaves have a distinctly pleasing wintergreen flavor. This is a fine shade-loving ground cover that is native to the woodlands from Manitoba to the eastern United States. It has very attractive, glossy, evergreen rounded leaves (purple-tinted in winter) and delicate, waxy, white flowers which become the large edible fruit. This 6-inch creeper makes a perfect groundcover for woodland, edible, and rock gardens. The fruit is an important food source for pheasant, squirrels, and deer. It is one that is used medicinally as a poultice for aching joints.

Common and Scientific Name ~ The common names of Wintergreen, Checkerberry,  and Teaberry are for the plant known as Gaultheria procumbens. This plant is an aromatic plant of the heath family called Ericaceae.

Countries of Origin of the Plant and oil ~ I have seen essential oil of Wintergreen (G. procumbens or G. fragrantissima) from Nepal and China. G. procumbens is in the forest of Canada and the north of the United States. I have seen the analysis of these as well.

ENDANGERED ~ Wintergreen is native to Ontario Canada. It was first discovered and used by Native Americans; the leaves and berries produce the oil of wintergreen (methyl salicylate). And it is not endangered.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF WINTERGREEN HABITAT and GROWTH ~ Gaultheria procumbens has many short erect branches with short-stalked, thick, shining tooth-edged leaves in the upper part.  Flowers hang singly from the leaf axils and have a pale pink, waxy-looking, urn-shaped corolla.  The bright red berrylike fruits, sometimes called deer-berries, consist of the much-enlarged fleshy calyx, which surrounds the small many-seeded capsule.  The plant is a native of shady wood on sandy soil, particularly in the mountainous areas of the northern United States and southern Canada.”2

Close-up of glossy wintergreen leaves. Photo taken in December.
Close-up of Wintergreen leaves in December

                  This fragrant, evergreen ground cover makes a lovely addition to my urban garden. It is evergreen, a ground cover, and seems to be tolerant of most soil, sandy, dry, slightly alkaline, and drought tolerant.  It seems to prefer well-drained soil.  I plant it in the sun (about 6 hours/day), in the shade, and wherever I need it. I often add oyster shells around the base to add a bit of alkalinity and to highlight the green leaves.  The bright red berries last a long time, sometimes months. I still have a few berries on my plants from December 2020.

            Wintergreen leaf tea is harvested in Nepal and steam distilled. When bruised or cut, the foliage emits a strong wintergreen scent.  Small pinkish-white flowers appear in summer followed by scarlet red berries that are quite persistent.

LEAVES OF WINTERGREEN ARE USED IN EXTRACTION ~ “… the composition of wintergreen essential oil is very simple; its distillation is a bit more complex. First, the methyl salicylate is not free in the plant but bound to some sugar. This non-volatile glucidic complex named gaultherin must be hydrolyzed prior to distillation so that the methyl salicylate can be distilled. The leaves must be macerated in hot water prior to the distillation so that the plant enzymes can free the methyl salicylate. This macerate water is used in the hydrodistillation.                            Wintergreen essential oil is one of the rare oils that are denser than water and it doesn’t decant easily. The distillation of eastern teaberry requires a still with a special design (a separator for heavy oils and for better yields, the possibility to distill with cohobation).1

For more technical details on the distillation test, 2.7 kg of the plant (stems and leaves) have been harvested and macerated in water the night before distillation. [see the article for more information).1

            Wintergreen leaf tea is harvested in Nepal and the oil is made by steam processing of warmed, water-soaked wintergreen leaves. and then steam-distilled.

When bruised or cut, the foliage emits a strong wintergreen scent.  Small pinkish-white flowers appear in summer followed by scarlet red berries that are quite persistent.

ORGANOLEPTICS of Wintergreen ~ The scent of the essential oil is bright and fresh and should be used in dilution – never neat.

Two bottles of essential oil of Wintergreen, one red oil, and one colorless oil
Two bottles of essential oil of Wintergreen, one red oil, and one colorless oil

ORGANOLEPTICSWintergreen – redWintergreen – no color
TasteStrong & bitterStrong & bitter
OdorEponymous Wintergreen gum odor. green, fruity, herbaceousFruity, green, and Herbaceous

CHEMISTRY AND COMPONENTS ~ WINTERGREEN oil has a relatively simple composition. Methyl salicylate is the main compound found in this EO at a concentration higher than 98%. The remaining part of the oil generally contains low amounts of ethyl salicylate, linalool, α-pinene, and limonene. Regarding adulteration, it’s obvious that pure synthetic methyl salicylate can be sold as genuine wintergreen oil. This can be detected by the absence of minority molecules mentioned above or by the presence of synthetic by-products created during the manufacturing process of synthetic methyl salicylate.


GENERAL PROPERTIES of Wintergreen Herb and EO

Wintergreen is an herb. It has a good taste and is used in teas for headaches and other types of pain, fever, gas, pain of arthritis, and other conditions. In foods, wintergreen fruit is consumed raw or cooked in jellies, syrups, and wine and is very tasty.            
          The leaves and oil are used to make medicine. In manufacturing, Wintergreen is used as a flavoring agent in food, candies, teas, root beer, and in pharmaceutical products. The E.O. is used for painful conditions including headache, arthritis, and menstrual cramps. It is also used for digestion problems including stomachache and gas (flatulence) and lung conditions including asthma.

APPLICATION AND SKINCARE ~ Wintergreen leaf tea is used as a compress for painful conditions including headache, arthritis, and menstrual cramps. The tea is also taken for digestion problems including stomachache and gas (flatulence), and lung conditions including asthma. Compresses of the herb leaf or blends that can include the essential oil are used for pain and swelling (inflammation).

            The scent of the essential oil is bright and fresh and should be used in dilution – never neat. The E.O. is used for painful conditions including headache, arthritis, and menstrual cramps.

INHALATION ~ Occasional use is okay.

DIFFUSION ~ Do Not diffuse this oil as it can be very irritating.

Thirty years ago, a friend was being cared for at home. In his last days, he had explosive diarrhea.  His family was only able to combat the odor by periodically diffusing Wintergreen into his area of the home. But this is not recommended for most situations as some are allergic to the scent.

BLENDING FOR PURPOSE ~ Be careful if you use Wintergreen in a blend for its scent.  It can be very irritating to some people.  Do not use this in a pain blend with a heating pad as the heat can drive the oil into the skin and cause a serious burn.

            Wintergreen added to Lavender can result in a blend that has the smell of a warm sea.  Try it at 1•100 and if that doesn’t do it, then add another drop of Wintergreen.

            Very small amounts added to various blends always add a sweet, happy, note to the oils it is mixed with.

EMOTIONAL & SYMBOLIC USE ~ Wintergreen has much symbolism attached to it.  These plants are considered calming and cooling and represent healing and protection. Some believe that when given as a gift they break any hex that surrounds the person getting the gift and that they attract love, luck, and money.  This is a great gift to be given to others as a potted plant for a shady, sunny spot on the porch or to be woven into a wreath. A sprig placed under a child’s pillow offers protection and a life of good fortune3

Two plants, one in the bud and one with the flowers fully developed.  Such a lovely plant.
Two plants, one in the bud and one with the flowers fully developed. Such a lovely plant.

CULINARY OR INGESTION ~ Wintergreen berries (Gaultheria procumbens) are a favorite January breath mint and trailside snack. One of the few fruits that is sweetest and freshest on a cold winter or early spring day, frozen wintergreen berries have “ the texture of sorbet “ and a classic wintergreen flavor. The red berries of this native species persistently cling to the plant and, like wild fox grapes, truly come into their own after the first frost. Prolonged, hard frost only invigorates the wintergreen flavor, reducing lingering bitterness and bringing out the cool, creamy texture of the red berry’s flesh. The fruit is at its finest freshly picked and eaten raw, but its flavor can be strong and only one or two berries is plenty to cleanse the palette. This is not a fruit that should be eaten by the handful; think of it as a garnish or palate cleanser.6

Wintergreen with berries. Plant obtained from Forest Farm
Wintergreen with berries. Plant obtained from Forest Farm

HERBAL USES OF WINTERGREEN AND BIRCH BARK ~ Compresses of the herb leaf or blends that include the essential oil are used for pain and swelling (inflammation). The leaves are used in baths, compresses, tonics, and many other ways.  “It will help external skin problems as a decoction application, but if you are sensitive to salicylates, it can also cause skin problems.4” Use in moderation.

HYDROSOL ~ I have never had the opportunity to use this hydrosol in any capacity.  I have had Birchbark hydrosol (same chemical component) and used small amounts as a foot bath for my aching feet.

KEY USE ~ Wintergreen Leaf and oil for Pain-Relief

A bottle of Prima Fleur essential oil of Wintergreen.
A bottle of Prima Fleur Wintergreen essential oil



Here is a story from 1988 regarding Wintergreen. These two oils  Birch and Wintergreen smell alike, contain methyl salicylate and may cause allergic reactions in sensitive persons, so it would be wise to check this before applying.

            Do not apply essential oils in a steam bath. Once while taking a steam bath, I made the mistake of applying a single drop of Wintergreen oil to the outside of my swimsuit.  The steam caused the oil to vaporize and met my skin, nose, and eyes.  Now even though I am not normally sensitive to this substance, the heat of the steam bath and the steam itself caused the oil to diffuse and vaporize, expanding incredibly, the skin above the suit line broke out into a bright red rash that burned and itched painfully.  I had to leave the steam room immediately and run cold water on my irritated skin for 10 minutes until the pain dulled and then went away.  I also applied vitamin E oil to heal the rash.

 So do be very careful when using essential oils; remember that they are highly concentrated substances that require only an infinitesimal amount to be effective.


INTERESTING/SCIENCE/HISTORICAL ~ “…serious toxicity can result from exposure to small amounts of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate is widely available as a component in many over-the-counter brands of creams, ointments, lotions, liniments, and medicated oils intended for topical application to relieve musculoskeletal aches and pains. Among the most potent forms of methyl salicylate is oil of wintergreen (98% methyl salicylate). Other products with varying concentrations of methyl salicylate are ubiquitous throughout many parts of the world, including a number of products marketed as Asian herbal remedies.” ‑‑­­­­––

POLLUTANT ~ Wintergreen oil is considered a pollutant to marine life and a hazard to wildlife.5


3 The Complete Language of Flowers. S. Therese Dietz. #401
4 Rose, Jeanne • The Herbal Body Book, page 131
5 Roses, Jeanne • 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols, p, 157


This work was sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.


Wintergreen oil cautions.
Some Cautions to Remember with Wintergreen

Moderation in All Things.
Be moderate in your use of essential oils as they are just not sustainable for the environment.
Be selective and more moderate in your usage.
Use the herb first as tea or the infusion. —JeanneRose 2014

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©


Wintergreen plant in a pot.
Wintergreen plant in a pot.

PINE & Pine Oil

Conifers are favorite trees, and their essential oils and plant parts perform in many formulas, therapeutics, and blends — they are widely grown and healing to mind and body. There are many species called Pine; over 100. We will cover about half a dozen.

By Jeanne Rose ~ October 2021

Showing a branch of Pinus patula with its very long leaf clusters.
Pinus patula – photo by JeanneRose in SF Golden Gate Park – 2008

INTRODUCTION ~ Conifers are favorite trees, and their essential oils and plant parts perform in many formulas, therapeutics, and blends — they are widely grown and healing to mind and body. There are many species of one of the evergreen coniferous trees that is called Pine; over 100. In this article, we will cover about half a dozen. Sorry if this article is longer than usual, I just couldn’t stop writing about these favorite trees.

COMMON NAME/LATIN BINOMIAL ~ Pine trees, Pinus spp., belong to the Family Pinaceae. This family also includes Firs, Spruce, Cedars, Hemlocks, and Larch trees.  The common name, Pine, has been used for several types of trees that are very unlike a true Pine. We are only discussing the resinous, evergreen conifers called Pinus spp.

Family: Pinaceae (resinous trees or shrubs, cone scales numerous and woody or thin)
Genera include:
Abies (Firs or Balsam Trees)
Cedrus (True Cedars)

Larix (Larch or True Tamaracks)
Picea (Spruce)

Pinus (Pine)
Pseudotsuga (False Hemlock)
Tsuga (Hemlock-Spruce)

PINE COUNTRIES OF ORIGINS ~ There are over 100 species of Pine, and they grow worldwide but generally in the Northern hemisphere. There are small pine trees such as the Siberian dwarf pine and very large pine trees such as the Ponderosa pine growing in the Siskiyou Forest of Oregon. There are the longest-lived trees called the Great Basin Bristlecone Pines that live in the White Mountains of California, Pinus longaeva. ‘Methuselah’ is one specimen that is 4600 hundred years old.

ENDANGERED OR NOT: Of the 100 species of Pine, there are some endangered species such as the endangered Torrey Pine, Pinus torreyana, and the Iberian Pine. “Forests worldwide are experiencing die-offs on an unprecedented scale because of fire and acid rain.” So, before you harvest anything from the wild, please check to see if the tree is endangered or not.



I cannot tell you everything that you can do with Pine needles, pine bark, Pine resin or Pine essential oil,

 I can only hint at the subject matter and give you a few of my favorite uses.

Showing a type of Pine leaf cluster
2-bunch leaf cluster

PHYSICAL USES ~ I love taking baths in the infusion Pine and conifer needles, and maybe with a small branch of pine as well. I enjoy distilling the needles for the hydrosol, I like to use the needles as a tea for the vitamin C content; I like the resin to burn for my mental and physical well-being as well as to make a wound-healing salve.  If you can, pick the freshly exuded resin after the sun has warmed it up for a few hours. The scent changes and becomes more floral and fruity-smelling and is sometimes described as smelling like caramel.

APPLICATION AND SKINCARE ~ If you have read my books, you already know that I strongly believe in the power of water and the power of bathing where every part of your part can be sequentially submerged fully in water. Water is life!  Hydrotherapy is the use of water in the treatment of disease. Hydrothermal therapy additionally uses its temperature effects, whether hot or cold, as in hot baths, saunas, wraps, masks, packs, hand soaks, foot soaks, etc. All creatures great and small go into water or SPAs to be restored. The importance of herbs, essential oils and hydrosols is not that they occur in products or product making or in the SPA, but the foundation of this work; water, herbalism, and essential oil therapy, is to revive and restore one’s personal nature and well-being.  Our/your key water words




Recreate what happens in the womb via pure water/hydrosols/herb or mineral water baths





            Please take an herbal bath, add Pine boughs or Pine needles; the scent will restore you and herbal power will improve your skin.

INHALATION ~ Inhale the scent of Pine in steam or use the essential oil of Pine to restore and heal your respiratory system.

DIFFUSION/Burning as Incense ~ Add Rosemary herb to some Pine needles, make tea, and the tea brings with it clarity and mental clearness. These two together or separately simmered gently on the lowest heat of the stove adds crisp forest odor to the air and will fragrance your home. A good simple or combination for the Holidays.

If you have any kind of resin or pine resin in the house, start a small piece of charcoal burning, and place a gob of resin on it.  It will fume and the smoke and odor can be used to waft about your person or home as a spiritual ritual of cleansing and/or to promote knowledge, healing, and wisdom. This is called smudging. This is a ritual way to cleanse a space and purify the environment of negative energy.

Resin chunks of Ponderosa Pine taken 10-15-16
Ponderosa Pine gum for Incense (10/15/16)

EMOTIONAL USE ~ There is great power in the scent of the conifers, particularly live while walking in the forest, it is uplifting and healing to the emotional psyche.  The scent of sun-heated resin wafting through the air is a particular delight and should be experienced at least once in a lifetime.2

CULINARY OR INGESTION ~ Pine honey is a particular type of honey that the honeybees produce, not based on nectar or pollen, as is the case for other types of honey, but by using the honeydew excreted by an insect, an aphid named Marchalina hellenica, which lives by sucking on the sap of certain pine species and leaves the honeydew on the trunks of these trees. Pine honey is produced in western (mainly southwestern) Turkey, in several Greek islands, and in New Zealand.

The pine species on which Marchalina hellenica can be found are the Turkish Pine (Pinus brutia) and, to a smaller extent, Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis), Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris), and Stone Pine (Pinus pinea). The insects hide in the cracks and under the scales of the bark of these trees, beneath a white cotton-like wax they secrete.

          Pine needles can be used as tea.  They are loaded with vitamin C, even more than Lemons, and they also contain some vitamin A. This tea will help your circulatory system, heart, veins, and blood, help you to relax and help with fatigue. It is an immune system booster.  Pine needle tea tastes and smells good and is used as an expectorant to relieve a cough and chest congestion.  Adding honey to the tea makes a good gargle for sore throat.  [How to make: take a small bunch of needles, that which you can hold between thumb and forefinger, place in a large cup, add boiling water, steep 5 minutes or more, take out the needles, add (Pine) honey, and drink.]

         Bathing in a bath of Pine needles, other conifer needles, Rosemary, and Lavender; all or separately is a delightful way to treat soreness of the skin, exhaustion, or to just have a lovely bath. [How to make: 3 cups or 4 oz. of herb steeped in 2 quarts of boiled or boiling water for 20 minutes, strain the liquid into the tub, and soak away your pain.] 

KEY USE ~ Oil of Respiration

a bottle of Pine oil from showing the colorless and clear non-viscous essential oil.
Pinus sylvestris oil by PrimaFleur


GROUP I. PINUS (PINES) Trees of the Genus Pinus have leaves that are persistent and of two kinds, the primary ones are linear or scale-like, and deciduous.  The secondary ones form the ordinary foliage and are narrowly linear, arising from the axils of the primary leaves in bunches of 1-5 leaf clusters enclosed at the base in a membranous sheath. These needles can be as long as 18 inches and narrow as well.

2-needle cluster of pine leaf

Mainly the trees that are harvested for the essential oil called Pine oil are Pinus mugo (Dwarf Pine), Pinus palustris (Long Leaf Pine) and Pinus sylvestris (Scotch Pine).

Pinus edulis, Piñon or Colorado Pinon Pine. Very interesting and historic tree whose needles and gum are steam- or hydro-distilled. Yield is about .05 to .1%.  It is a small to medium sized tree with a furrowed and scaly bark and whose needles come in pairs. The cones are green then ripen to yellow. The edible seeds are from many types of Pinyon Pine. There are many species used by Native Americans depending on the area of growth. The tree was described (about 1848). Pinon Pine is a historic tree of the Native Americans as it was a staple food, the resin was used in ritual, and the pinyon jay ate the nuts, and this was important in the dispersal of seeds and regeneration of the tree.

Pinus jeffreyi, Jeffrey Pine mainly found in California and was named to honor John Jeffrey, a Scottish botanist and plant-hunter who was active in California. He disappeared in the Colorado desert in 1854. Jeffrey Pine scent of leaves and resin is very pleasant and has been described as lemon, Vanilla, and fruits. Pinus jeffreyi wood is like ponderosa pine wood and is used for the same purposes. The resin distilled is of exceptional purity of n-heptane (a solvent) and led it being selected as the zero point on the octane rating scale of gasoline; but this resin is considered a poor source of turpentine.

“Before Pinus jeffreyi was distinguished from ponderosa pine as a distinct species in 1853, resin distillers operating in its range suffered a number of “inexplicable” explosions during distillation, now known to have been caused by the unwitting use of Jeffrey pine resin.” 1

            Jeffrey Pine needles can be used in tea, the resin when warmed in the sun is extraordinarily fragrant and can be collected and used as incense resin and the seeds eaten. (Do Not Distill),

Jeffrey Pine photo in Golden gate Park
Jeffrey Pine

Pinus longaeva, Bristlecone Pine lives in the Great Basin of California and are the oldest species on the planet.  They are fiercely protected, rather hard to get to, and gorgeous to behold. This is an artist rendition that I have of them by Claus Sievert and the entire print includes the tallest tree (Coast Redwood) as well as the biggest tree (Sequoia big trees).

Art by Claus Sievert of the Bristlecone Pine Tree.
The Bristlecone Pine Three Superlatives by Claus Sievert

•Pinus mugo, Mountain Pine, and Dwarf Pine Needle is harvested in the Swiss Alps. It is sturdy and shrub-like and is protected by the Swiss government and is harvested according to very particular rules and only at certain elevations. This oil has a particularly pungent odor reminiscent of both bark and needle oil. Entire branches including the needles are finely chopped up and thrown into the still for this essential oil. This combination of bark and needle makes up oil that is both airy and grounding. Components of Dwarf Pine Needle include l-a Pinene, b-Pinene, l-Limonene and Sesquiterpenes, Pumiliol, etc.

Pinus mugo branch tip
Pinus mugo

              In Europe, this plant is used for diseases of the skin and scalp and particularly at healing spas where it is inhaled for ailments of the respiratory organs, including pleurisy and tuberculosis. This is a powerful adjunct in therapies for all sorts of ear, nose, throat, and lung disorders. Pinus mugo is used as an aromatic stimulant, antiseptic, expectorant, and it can relieve bronchial and nasal congestion by inhalation of the needle infusion or the essential oil;  the tea has been used to treat upper respiratory tract infections, chronic bronchitis; bathing in the infusion treats rheumatism, muscle stiffness by improving blood flow.

 •Pinus palustris, Long Leaf Pine, Turpentine (See also Terebinth) is a tall, evergreen, up to 150 feet with attractive, reddish-brown, deeply fissured bark with long, stiff needles that grow in pairs. Is used mainly for the distillation of American gum spirits of Turpentine. This is a tall, evergreen tree native to the Southeast United States. The main component is Terpineol. It has been considered a powerful antiseptic spray and disinfectant, especially in veterinary medicine.  It has mainly external use in blends as a massage for arthritis, muscular aches and pains, and stiffness, and in the past, natural Turpentine was often inhaled for asthma and bronchitis.  This has been much used in the commercial industry to manufacture paint but has now been largely replaced by synthetic Pine oil (synth. Turpentine).

photo of Pinus palustris
Pinus palustris

 •Pinus pinaster the Maritime Pine contains Mono- and Sesquiterpenes. It is a powerful antiseptic used to disinfect the air locally. Good for chronic bronchitis, chronic cystitis, and anti-inflammatory for the lungs. Can be used externally in massage blends for rheumatism or aching joints. A particular chemotype of Pinus pinaster contains large quantities of terebenthine which is composed of 62% a-pinene and 27% b-Pinene. This oleoresin is used as a powerful expectorant, antiseptic, and to oxygenate the air. It is indicated for infections of the respiratory system. The EO or needle is used in hot water for steam inhaling treatments. Mainly used as an aerosol treatment but with possible allergies if used externally.

Pinus pinaster in Golden Gate Park
Pinus pinaster in Golden Gate Park

Scots Pine or Pinus sylvestris.

•Pinus sylvestris, Scotch Pine, Norway Pine is a tall, evergreen, up to 150 feet with attractive, reddish-brown, deeply fissured bark with long, stiff needles that grow in pairs. The essential oil is produced mainly in the Baltic states. The components are greatly influenced by geographical origin and consist mainly of Monoterpenes, Pinene, some Limonene.  Pinus sylvestris is considered to have hormone-like, cortisone-like qualities. It is indicated for convalescence, inhaled for bronchitis, sinusitis, and asthma. and is used to tone the respiratory system, balance the hypothalamic/pancreas axis as well as the HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal). It is a hypertensive, tonic stimulant.


PORTION OF PLANT USED IN DISTILLATION, HOW DISTILLED, EXTRACTION METHODS, AND YIELDS ~ It is the needles and sometimes the resin that is hydro-distilled. The yield can be quite good.

•• Please read the caution with Pinus jeffreyi.••


Pine oil showing color and clarity against a white background.
Several Pine Oils

ORGANOLEPTIC PINE OIL CHARACTERISTICS ~ Pine oil from most species when distilled is clear, colorless, non-viscous, and with a powerful and oftentimes medicinal turpentine odor that is green, vegetative, and herbaceous. There are some species with a fruity back note.

downward arrow to the organoleptic chart of Pine oil
The basic 7 - Vocabulary of Odor copyrighted chart for two Pine oils. by JeanneRose
Basic 7 Vocabulary of Odor chart for two Pine oils

BLENDING FOR PURPOSE ~ I particularly enjoy blending various conifer needle essential oils together. I use the blend in a diffusor to scent my home, or I use it in an inhaler to cleanse my sinus, or I use the blend in certain body-care lotions for smoothing and healing.

HYDROSOL ~ Hydrosol Use of Pine: Most hydrosols have not yet been tested as to what components they do or do not contain. Contrary to what several well-known aromatherapy experts say, hydrosols do not contain the same components as their essential oils but in less quantity. In the case of Pinyon Pine, the EO contains mainly alpha and beta-pinene while the hydrosol contains alpha-terpineol, terpinene-4-ol, and borneol.  Using hydrosols is easy: baths, compresses, facial sprays, wound cleansers, etc.

            Spray hydrosols to refresh the air as the small airborne molecules disperse readily, particularly in cars or airplanes (don’t use too much), rinse to disinfect your hands, a slight spray on clothes after removing from the dryer creates a nice refreshing change, use in fingerbowls with a few pine needles after your formal dinner, use in small amounts in creams and lotions to add pine therapy to the product.

            PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

INTERESTING AND HISTORICAL INFORMATION ABOUT TURPENTINE ~ There is plenty of very interesting information about natural turpentine online.  Here is one source:




Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.

Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999

Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:

Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992

Precautions for all essetial oils.
Precautions for all essential oils

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

The biggest Pine tree in California before it crashed to the ground some years back.


NASTURTIUMNasturtium is Garden Medicine

 By Jeanne Rose 1980 – present

Nasturtium in the garden showing colors and leaves

Introduction ~ The Nasturtium is in full flower in my yard at this time of year (July/August).

 Common Name/Scientific Name & Family ~ The Latin name is Tropaeolum majus, and it is from the Family Tropaeolaceae, the Nasturtium. The name Tropaeolum is from the word trophy. Linnaeus named it from the Latin word, which was defined “as a sign of victory in war helmets from captured warriors who were once hung on posts.” The leaves of the plant climbing posts are compared to the shields and the flowers to the bloodstained helmets.  The plant first arrived in Spain in 1569 thanks to Spanish botanist Nicolás Monardes, who wrote extensively about all the plants and animals he discovered during his trip to South America. The name Tropaeolum majus was given to the plant by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus.

Other Names and background ~ The common name of Indian Cress from its pungent flavor of leaves is like name-related watercress (N. Officinale). These are two different plants from two very separate families.

Chart of the difference between Nasturtium and Watercress
Nasturtium name confusion

General Description of Plant habitat and Growth ~ This plant is native to Peru, South America. It has big edible leaves, brilliant and edible flowers. It is an easy plant to grow and does best if not over-watered or over-fertilized. It will grow in full sun and part-shade and climbs up the nearest fence or plant.  The flowers mature, fall off, and the seed pods form. These pods can be collected and immersed in vinegar and make a tasty substitute for capers.

A single Nasturtium flower peaking through the fence
photo by JeanneRose, 1995

Seeds and Leaves – The seeds yield a high percentage of a drying oil that can be used in making paints, varnish, etc. The growing plant attracts aphids away from other plants. Research indicates that aphids flying over plants with orange or yellow flowers do not stop, nor do they prey on plants growing next to or above the flowers. An insecticide can be made from an infusion of leaves and soap flakes.

Countries of Origin ~ Native to South America

Endangered – Not endangered

PORTION OF PLANT USED IN EXTRACTION – The entire plant can be used: leaves, flowers, seed pods. It is sometimes used as a flower essence remedy and in homeopathy and in various other forms of alternative therapy.



Physical Uses ~ Nasturtium has long been used in Andean herbal medicine as a disinfectant and wound-healing herb and an expectorant to relieve chest conditions.

All parts of the plant appear to be antibiotic; an infusion of the leaves can be drunk to increase resistance to bacterial infections and clear nasal and bronchial catarrh. The remedy seems to both reduce catarrh formation and stimulate the clearing and coughing up of phlegm.

The leaves are antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, aperient, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, laxative, and stimulant.

Application and Skincare ~ Externally, it makes an effective antiseptic wash and is used to treat baldness, minor injuries, and skin eruptions. Any plant part can be used; it is harvested during the growing season and used fresh. …

Emotional Use ~ A essence is made of flowers and used as a tonic for the lower body organs to energize and bring hope after a significant loss and life changes. This flower remedy was made in the Spring when it brings forth new life after the Winter season. Nasturtium brings hope after a significant loss, upheaval, or life change. The yellow, orange and red colors of the flowers relate to the three lower chakras. It also reflects the cleansing of the bright inner star that you are, removing the dross accumulating over many lifetimes, so you can shine more brightly. –

FLOWER REMEDY ~ AS a flower remedy or elixir, “Nasturtium is said to bring in more joy and spontaneity and to be used whenever life starts to feel dull or routine. Nasturtium helps us add more spice to life.” ‑ Lotuswei Nasturtium will enhance a feeling of contentment and happiness. It also helps you see where and how you are unique.

CULINARY OR INGESTION ~ All parts of the plant can be eaten. Nasturtium flowers contain mustard seed oil, so flowers and young fruits can be used for seasoning and pickling, leaves can be used for a peppery taste in salads. These green seeds can also be pickled in vinegar, flowers, and seeds can be mashed into sweet butter for a tasty spread. The flowers can be used as a wrap to roll around small canapes as an appetizer.

Nasturtium growing up  on the fence
Nasturtium on the fence

HERBAL ~ All parts of the plant appear to have antibiotic effects. Nasturtium has long been used in Andean herbal medicine as a disinfectant and wound-healing herb and an expectorant to relieve chest conditions.

The flowers are used in bath herbs mixtures as a colorful astringent, in hair rinses for dark blonde to red hair; the leaves and flowers can be used in bath herbs or teas and salads for a tasty ‘bite.’ I also like to collect and dry the flowers to add color to a potpourri. Hummingbirds sip from the flowers.

An infusion of the leaves can increase resistance to bacterial infections and clear nasal and bronchial catarrh. This remedy seems to both reduce catarrh formation and stimulate the clearing and coughing up of phlegm.

            The seeds yield a high percentage of a drying oil that can be used in making paints, varnish, etc. And Nasturtium can be used as a trap crop for aphids.

HYDROSOL ~ I have never had a hydrosol of Nasturtium flower or leaves and wonder what it might be like.  I think the best use of Nasturtiums is as a garden and culinary plant.

Key Use ~ As a food.

Chemistry and Components ~ A glycoside found in the plant reacts with water to produce an antibiotic. The plant has antibiotic properties towards aerobic spore-forming bacteria. Extracts from the plant have anticancer activity. The plant is taken internally to treat genito-urinary diseases, respiratory infections, scurvy, and poor skin and hair conditions.

INTERESTING/SCIENCE/HISTORICAL ~ Nasturtium is symbolic of patriotism. … The round leaves reminded Linnaeus of the shields of warriors and the flowers of their blood-stained helmets, hence the symbolism of patriotism.

See for more flower essence information
Rose, Jeanne. The Herbal Body Book.
This is an interesting article.


Moderation in All Things.

Be moderate in your use of essential oils, as they are just not sustainable for the environment.

Be selective and more moderate in your usage.

Use the herb first as tea or the infusion. —JeanneRose 2014

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©


CARNATION (Gillyflower, Clove-pink)

The true pink Carnation (gillyflower or clove-pink) Dianthus caryophyllus was my wedding flower in 1972. It is a flower of fascination, scent, and love. The flower is edible and is used to scent and flavor many foods.

CARNATION, Gillyflower, Clove-pink)

Research by Jeanne Rose 1970 – to the present

A Clove-pink flower with the carnation absolute.
Clove Pink


Absolute of Carnation

Carnation absolute is an amber-colored liquid sometimes a greenish-brown viscous liquid with an herbaceous, bitter-honey-like, and spicy back note and a bitter taste. In natural perfumery is used in floral blends (rose, lily, narcissus, jonquil, Cassie, white ginger, honeysuckle), spice accords, etc. There is any intensity of the odor that is best expressed when a drop of spicy clove oil plus a drop or two of sweet cinnamon oils is added and it is diluted with 95% grape spirits and allowed to age for several weeks.

Pinks photographed in golden gate park in 2016
Pinks in the Park

These were photographed in Golden Gate Park in 2016.

Pinks have a sweet and spicy fragrance and charming, frilled flowers.

These are the Organoleptic (Sensory) and Odor Characteristics of Carnation Absolute
(Description of color, clarity, viscosity, taste & intensity of Odor.

ColorDark rich brown, sometimes green
IntensityWorks well with many florals, fruity, citrus and wood scents
TenacityHas a rich tenacity and presence in a perfume
Organoleptics of Carnation absolute 2021

Odor description ~ The odor of Carnation absolute is absolutely unlike any Carnation, gillyflower, or sops-in-wine that I have ever smelled.  It is dark and dank and needs to be fluffed up with spicy clove and sweet cinnamon to work in a perfume.



By Jeanne Rose from my original 1969 notes and old books

Carnation – abs … Portion of Plant Used in Distillation, How Distilled, Extraction Methods & Yield ~ Dianthus caryophyllus, the common garden carnation flowers are extracted with solvents and the result is a hard, green concrète then washed in alcohol for the absolute. In France and in many books, it is called ‘absolue d’œillet’. The brown viscous liquid was sweet-scented of honey, spice, and herbs, somewhat like the flower. This scent mixed well with other floral notes and fixatives such as Castoreum and Oakmoss. This product was produced in Europe. My original bottles have a more representative scent of Carnation flowers of old, rather than what is grown today.

Name of Oil ~ Carnation absolute (Dianthus caryophyllus)

Carnation probably comes from the Italian dialectal carnagione (flesh color) from the Late Latin word carnationem. Carnations were mentioned in Greek literature 2,000 years ago. Dianthus was coined by Greek botanist Theophrastus and is derived from the Greek words for divine dios and for flower anthos. Some scholars believe that the name carnation comes from coronation or corone (flower garlands), as it was one of the flowers used in Greek ceremonial crowns. Others think the name stems from the Latin carnis (flesh), which refers to the original color of the flower, or incarnation of God made flesh. In Romanian, the word for carnation is garoafa, it is also surnamed “flower of royalty”.1

            These plants that we love so well are called Pinks, Carnations, Sweet William, or Dianthus.  They vary according to the variety wanted, or the breeder decided to grow.

Countries of Origin ~ Natives of Europe, the absolute produced in France, Egypt, and Holland.

This is an old ‘sops in wine’ from the Fenbow garden of Elizabethan times, as described in the book “Old Carnations and Pinks” by C. Oscar Moreton.

old drawing of Nutmeg Clove
Nutmeg Clove

The Nutmeg Clove Carnation from “Old Carnations and Pinks” by C. Oscar Moreton


Carnations are flowers that are widely recognized by most people. They are classified as Dianthus caryophyllus, when translated, means “flower of love” or “flower of the gods”. There are approximately 300 species in the genus. They are native to the Eastern Hemisphere and are found naturally in the Mediterranean region, although modern varieties are grown both in greenhouses and in fields around the world. With such widespread commercial production available, there is not a limited season of availability. Because of their long-lasting qualities and fragrance, carnations are often featured in arrangements at holidays celebrated with flowers, at special occasions such as weddings and parties, and in sympathy arrangements.

Essential carnation oil in its absolute form is both rare and expensive. Many varieties produce a clove-like scent, and the aroma is said to be both uplifting and motivating. It was called ‘Clove-Pink”. Carnations and other flowers such as Stocks were also called Gillyflowers and Girofle. Not only are people attracted by their scent, but carnations also have an extended vase life from 7 to 21 days depending on the cultivar, harvest stage and flower food.

>>Many of the commercially produced varieties have flowers up to 3 inches in diameter and have very little odor. Colors especially red colors are on the same chemical pathway as scent. So, the more color or complexity of color often the less scent. Most flowers are double forms with ruffled petals. Remember that the same chemical pathways carry scent and color; if you breed for color and size, you will have less scent.<<<

CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF THE OIL- ISOEUGENOL ACETATE. Carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) are popular ornamentals and are mainly used as cut flowers. Their scents are composed of benzenoids, terpenoids, fatty acid derivatives, and other minor components (Clery et al., 1999; Hudak and Thompson, 1997; Schade et al., 2001; Zuker et al., 2002). Classical fragrant carnations possess a spicy and clove-like odor caused mainly by benzenoids (Clery et al., 1999).2

400-year-old illustration –


In Odorographia, p. 260 The perfume of cloves blended with a trace of that of methyl-salicylate (wintergreen oil) or a compound organic ether, is conspicuous in several species of Dianthus or ” Pink “: Plants belonging to the extensive order Caryophyllaceae. Most of the species are natives of Europe, temperate Asia, and North Africa. Dianthus Caryophyllus or ” Clove Pink ” is the original of the garden Carnation.

            According to a Christian legend, “Carnations first appeared on Earth as Jesus carried the Cross. The Virgin Mary shed tears at Jesus’ plight, and Carnations sprang up from where her tears fell” pink Carnation becoming the symbol of a mother’s undying love1. The history of the flower is fascinating. It was called ‘sops in wine”

HISTORY ~ Gillyflower. any of several scented flowering plants, especially the carnation, or clove pink (Dianthus caryophyllus), stock (Matthiola incana), and wallflower (Cheiranthus cheiri). However, the gillyflower of Chaucer, Spenser, and Shakespeare was the carnation. Other plants that are types of gillyflower are dame’s gillyflower, also known as dame’s violet (Hesperis matronalis); mock gillyflower, also known as soapwort or bouncing bet (Saponaria officinalis); feathered gillyflower, also known as the grass or garden pink (Dianthus plumarius); and sea gillyflower, also known as the thrift or sea pink (Armeria maritima).

To this day, carnations remain a favorite flower choice for many different occasions. They are immediately recognizable flowers, and they possess a charm and allure that continues to captivate people around the globe. In fact, in many parts of the world, the popularity of carnations surpasses that of any other flower including roses. The powerful sentiments these flowers can express are a perfect complement to their classic beauty and long-lasting freshness. By retaining its status as a floral mainstay for such a long time, the carnation has proven itself to be a lasting flower in more ways than one. –

Clove Pink

THERAPEUTIC VALUE OF CARNATION ~ Hilda Leyel mentions that the Carnation has cordial properties and enlivens the heart through the senses.  Gerard uses a conserve of the flowers with sugar to comfort the heart. Ms. Leyel continues that the pinks and carnations of all kinds have a cleansing effect on the blood, correct disorders of the head and the heart, and rejoice all the senses by their spicy scent and flavor.  A water distillate from pinks was said to be a cure for epilepsy and another says: ‘if a conserve be composed of them this is the life and the delight of humanity’ [this sounds like Gerard is being consulted again].

• • •


The pink is an ornamental plant known. As aromatic species, it follows that its composition must find a very fragrant essence, and indeed it can be found, even in small amounts, different for different varieties of carnations that exist. In the herbaceous plant parts it is also possible to find active saponins and some minor. As for its medicinal uses, there is little to say. There is a plant that is characterized by intense possess medicinal properties because its main job rather falls within the field of perfumery. If it is included here because once the water (hydrosol) was used as eye drops – carnation eyewash – for tired or damaged eyes. This application is a clear example of the theory of the sign: in fact, once the flower the carnation compared it with the eyes, because in the center of it appear certain that resemble paint the apple of the eyes of Hence it was proposed to extract the spirit of carnation, to soothe tired eyes or damaged, and began to prepare distilled water garden carnations. “. …


Emotional/Ritual Uses ~ Clove Pink ~ Dianthus caryophylatta ~ The favorite flower of Henry IV of France and still very much cultivated. This flower was introduced into France by French missionaries and soon assumed a double form in France in 1719. It has a lovely clove-like spicy and floral odor. Pinks and carnations of all kinds can be eaten and have a cleansing effect on the blood, head, and heart. Distill the flowers for a ‘cure’ for epilepsy; the hydrosols and waters can be drunk for nervous disorders. The absolute is a delight when used in small amounts in perfumer. – from Leyel

Interesting Facts ~ So popular were the clove gillyflowers in the 17th and 18th-century that they were used in soup, sauce, syrup, and cordials. The flowers were candied and preserved, made into kinds of vinegar, decorated salads, and always used as sops in wine and floated in the drinks of engaged couples. The actual Carnation known as ‘sops in wine’ or the clove gillyflower was a particular variety sometimes dried and powdered, but more often made into syrups and conserves. – from Leyel

From Victoria in Perfume Notes, 2005 – “Dianthus is derived from Greek, meaning di, Zeus and anthos, flower, “the flower of Zeus,” indicating its importance in the religious context of Ancient Greece. In Italy, Bologna in particular, the plant has been associated with Saint Peter and celebrated widely, with a special day at the end of June dedicated to carnation. In the Middle Ages, it was one of the most popular flowers for fragrance gardens. No monastery herb garden would be complete without carnation, the medicinal uses of which were referenced as early as the Han Dynasty texts (23-206 A.D.). In European herbal medicine tradition, carnation flowers have been prescribed for the nervous and coronary disorders. However, its probably most interesting usage has been recorded in the late 1600s, when the Countess of Dorset, England, made her own love potion, including carnation, lavender, bay leaf and marjoram. It is rather ironic that the flower of the most licentious of all Greek gods is supposed to have powers to cure wayward lovers. Interesting to note is that carnation signified devotion and loyalty in a variety of traditions, from European to Asian.”


Nerve Tonic made of Clove July flowers in Mountain wine

3 oz. Clove July flowers
Infuse into a quart of Mountain wine for 10 days
Shake every day.
On the 10th day filter through clean white blotting paper.
Drink a wineglassful 3 X/day as a nerve tonic. (a wineglassful is 2 oz)
From a Hilda Leyel book

Dianthus barbata – JeanneRose backyard


BLENDING & Perfumery ~ Blends well with  Ambrette seed EO, CO2 and abs; Basil EO and abs; Bergamot EO; Buddha wood EO and CO2;  Cassie abs; Champa flower EO and CO2; Clary sage EO and abs; Coconut CO2;  Fir balsam abs; Rose Geranium EO and abs; Genet (Spanish Broom) abs; Hay abs; Jasmine abs; Jonquil abs; Lavender EO, CO2 and abs; Lime EO; Lemon EO; Mandarin and Tangerine EO; Massoia EO and CO2; Neroli EO; Osmanthus abs; Rose abs, CO2 and abs; Sandalwood EO, CO2, and abs; Tonka abs; Vanilla abs and CO2; Ylang EO and abs; Violet leaf abs; and Tuberose abs.

Symbolic Meaning ~ Carnation is love, affection, fascination, and health. I used the Carnation flower on my wedding announcements in 1972.

            Carnation Meaning. The carnation means fascination, distinction, and love. According to a Christian legend, carnations grew from the Virgin Mary’s tears as she watched Jesus carry the cross. This is how they became associated with motherly love.

The meanings of carnations include fascination, distinction, and love. Like many other flowers, different messages can also be expressed with the flower’s different color varieties. Light red carnations, for example, are often used to convey admiration, whereas the dark red version expresses deeper sentiments of love and affection. White carnations are associated with purity and luck, and pink carnations are often given as a sign of gratitude. In the early part of the 20th century, carnations became the official flower of Mother’s Day in addition to finding particular significance in many other cultures worldwide. –


KEY USE ~ The absolute for scent and the flower petals in food and drinks.


•FORMULAS for Perfumes•

Formula for Mock Carnation Scent

Mock Carnation ..


Another formula Using Carnation Absolute

…….Alphabetical order …………….IN DROPS ……………………………. IN NOTES



  1. Scientific Papers Series Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development Vol. 18, Issue 2, 2018 PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, E-ISSN 2285-3952 107 RESEARCH ON THE EUROPEAN FLOWER MARKET AND MAIN SYMBOLIC VALUES OF THE MOST TRADED SPECIES
  2. J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci. 82 (2): 145–153. 2013. Available online at JSHS © 2013 Analysis of Scents Emitted from Flowers of Interspecific Hybrids between Carnation and Fragrant Wild Dianthus Species by Kyutaro Kishimoto, et al


Leyel, Hilda. Cinquefoil

Leyel, Hilda. Elixirs of Life

Leyel, Hilda. Herbal Delights

Moreton, C. Oscar. Old Carnations and Pinks. Published by George Rainbird with Collins, 1955.

Rose, Jeanne. The Herbal Body Book, p. 63

Rose, Jeanne. Herbs & Things, p. 247

Rose, Jeanne. Natural Perfumery Supplement. P. 132

Clove Pink – Dianthus – in Golden Gate Park Arboretum

WAFT for Scent and Health



A Study in Identity Confusion and Confliction

By Jeanne Rose – Summer 2021

4 bottles of Ravintsara oil, in the author's possession.  Photo by JeanneRose
several bottles of ravintsara oil – photo by JeanneRose

Introduction ~ Ravintsara #163, Cinnamomum camphora, is organically grown and not to be confused with Ravensara. Ravensara (Ravensara aromatica) and Ravintsara (Cinnamomum camphora) are two essential oils distilled from 2 very different trees, often misnamed from two separate botanical family, as well as two different countries. The leaves and wood of the tree are used for different essential oils and often also have different names. It is imperative that all who use essential oils, and any company that sells them, begin to label these oils using both common and scientific name, as well as part of the plant used, and country of origin.


Naming & Background ~ Cinnamomum camphora, the tree, has different oils with different names depending upon whether you are talking about leaves or wood and whether you are discussing the tree from Madagascar or elsewhere.  The leaves of the tree from Madagascar, CT cineole, are called Ravintsara and they are used in products as an application for fatigue, and postpartum infections. The essential oil from the leaves/stem, and bark has different therapeutic benefits. Often, it seems, when using the term C. camphora, camphor laurel, we are talking about the tree that grows in China and whose seeds have been studied as an anti-bacterial and whose wood is distilled and releases a solid, white, waxy substance called ‘camphor’.

Names and part and country as follows:

Cinnamomum camphora, CT cineole, leaves, Madagascar is Ravintsara oil

Cinnamomum camphora, CT linalool, leaves, China is Ho leaf oil.

Cinnamomum camphora, CT linalool, wood, China is Ho Wood oil

Cinnamomum camphora, CT linalool, wood and leaves, China is Shiu oil

Cinnamomum camphora, CT camphor, wood, China is called white camphor, yellow camphor, and other names.

Ravensara aromatica, CT methyl eugenol, leaves, Madagascar is Ravensara or Hazomanitra oil.

Ravensara aromatica, CT methyl chavicol, bark, Madagascar, is Anise wood oil aka Ravensara anisata.

Sometimes the leaves are picked with stems and when distilled, have that anise-scent of R. aromatica type anisata, bark, Madagascar is called Anise wood oil, and called Ravensara anisata. –– this from Material review 2005 [

Also, some scientific sources call this tree and another, Ravenala madagascariensis which is family Strelitziaceae, a palm-type tree. There is much confusion and Ravensara aromatica (the old name) is still confusing in the literature.  Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn. (Family STRELITZIACEAE), a palm tree whose leaves are used for asthma and the stem used for hypertension.

I remember these essential oils by scent and even that has changed over the years.

Family ~ Family Lauraceae – Cinnamomum camphora – Ravintsara. The essential oil of leaves, Cineole type, from the Madagascar tree is commercially known as ravintsara. The leaves are steam-distilled and depending upon terroir there are different chemical families represented.  The main ones are linalool and cineole. This tree with a common name of Camphor laurel has different names depending upon the six different chemical variants called chemotypes. These are camphor, linalool, 1,8-cineole, nerolidol, safrole, and borneol.

Countries of Origin ~ Ravintsara is a product of Madagascar.

Endangered – Probably, it depends upon to whom you are speaking and what plant and plant part they are discussing.  Even in the scientific literature, often the plant part being discussed is missing as evidenced from many articles in the literature as well as any book discussing essential oils.

  If you are using the leaves only of the R. aromatica, the tree itself is not endangered; however, if you are using the bark of this same tree [but called R. anisata], this tree is endangered.

General Description of Plant habitat and Growth and Confusion ~ I am unable to provide a proper description of the tree, only that at this writing this essential oil still causes confusion. Obtained from the leaves of a tree (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl), which was introduced from Taiwan as an ornamental tree and now grown widely in Madagascar and with increased demand from the international market. This essential oil has often been misreported and traded as ravensara, or Ravensara aromatica. The true ravensara (R. aromatica) essential oil is extracted from the leaves of an endemic species locally known as “havozo,’ or “hazomanitra, which means “aromatic tree” in the Malagasy language.”1

“Another source of confusion with Ravensara species is that R. aromatica and R. anisata (a synonym for R. aromatica) were considered different species producing different essential oils, whereas the plants were one and the same. Both essential oils come from the same plant, but the oil of R. anisata usually refers to the bark oil of R. aromatica (rich in methyl chavicol), while the essential oil of the true R. aromatica is extracted from the leaves. The species that was first described by Sonnerat was further renamed as R. anisata by Danguy.”2

PORTION OF PLANT USED IN EXTRACTION AND YIELDS ~ Ravintsara Essential Oil is steam distilled from leaves of Cinnamomum camphora CT cineole in Madagascar during the months of September through December.  The bark yields another product. Always carefully analyze the odor of the essential oil as there are certainly different grades and scents.  Wood, leaf, bark produce different essential oil by SD. See above.

Yield ~ I was unable to find the specific yield of essential oil of leaf of Cinnamomum camphora from Madagascar.

The chemical composition of R. aromatica bark is in all cases characterized by a high amount of methyl chavicol (83–98%), whatever the chemotype.


A bottle of  Prima fleur Ravintasara oil showing the color or lack of and the clarity.
Ravintsara showing color/clarity

ORGANOLEPTICS ~ The organoleptic, physical, and chemical profiles of the essential oils of ravintsara (C. camphora) and ravensara (R. aromatica) oils showed that both essential oils can also easily be differentiated using chemical fingerprinting. It has been proposed that new standards for their botanical and essential oil authentication and species identification be written.

Ravintsara – Cinnamomum camphora CT cineole, leaves, Madagascar

Color – colorless
Clarity – clear
Viscosity non-viscous
Scent Intensity – 6
Taste – bitter and aromatic

Tenacity – very good
Description of scent – The leaf oil is herbaceous, woody, spicy, and green and more suitable to therapeutics than perfumery.
Aroma Description – Ravintsara has an odor much like Eucalyptus due to the same chemical component of Cineol. It is pleasant and refreshing, fruity, herbaceous, and spicy. Waft the scent enough times to remember it by its odor.


GENERAL PROPERTIES of Ravintsara CT cineole

Properties of Ravintsara ~ This essential oil is considered anticatarrhal, decongestant, and expectorant. It is helpful and useful for rhinitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, and sinusitis (by inhalation).

BLENDING RAVINTSARA FOR PURPOSE ~ This robust and pleasant oil is best used in blends for the respiratory system and in massage blends, to refresh and uplift the body.  It blends well with herbaceous oils such as Rosemary and Marjoram, the citrus oils such as Lemon and Bergamot, and spicy oils. Included in this list are some resins and some grasses such as Frankincense and Palmarosa. Try very tiny amounts in perfumery to make the perfume sparkle.

>Formula for rhinitis ~ For perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR), the essential oils of Ravintsara, Geranium, (Pelargonium graveolens), Eucalyptus and Niaouli, used together, release their decongestant, tonic, and anti-infectious properties, and can be used in a base of saline solution and rosemary hydrosol, and provide great benefits in case of a blocked nose, (loss of sense of smell), and irritation of the ear, nose, throat (ENT) tract.3


1 oz Rosemary hydrosol
+  1 oz double strength saline solution*
+ 3 drops Ravintsara (Cinnamomum camphora, CT cineole, leaves, Madagascar is Ravintsara oil
+ 1 drop each of (Frankincense or Rose Geranium), Niaouli, and Eucalyptus.
Place all in a 2 oz nasal spray bottle, shake vigorously to use.

            *[Double strength saline solution is made by bringing to a boil 1 cup of water covered for 15 minutes. Cool to room temperature. Add 1 t. salt and a pinch of baking soda. Stir until dissolved. Store in the refrigerator no more than 2-days.]

>Another formula for rhinitis is the inhalation of a combination of EO that include Sandalwood, Ravensara aromatica, and Frankincense.2

>Sore throat Formula ~ For the beginning of a sore throat, I have used Ravintsara, a drop on a sugar cube, to slowly dissolve in my mouth.  I have found this to be very helpful.

HERBAL ~ A tea of the leaves of Cinnamomum camphora in Madagascar is used for fatigue and post-partum infection.

Chemistry and Components ~ We have discussed this in the beginning.  It is important for the consumer to look at the GCMS; if you want Ravintsara it must be from Madagascar and have high levels of cineol, 50-70%.  The scent will help guide you.  I have seen a product called this name (from a well-known essential oil company) that had a high percentage of linalool and that is NOT Ravintsara but Ho Leaf oil.

Key Uses ~ Ravintsara is the oil of the Respiratory system. Just like the citrine in the opening photo, ravintsara is a powerful cleanser.

Ravintsara oil - different sized bottles
Ravintsara oil


  1. Searching for the Real Ravensara (Ravensara aromatica Sonn.) Essential Oil. Perfumer & Flavorist, vol. 30, Jan-Feb 2005
  2. “Effect of inhalation of aromatherapy oil on patients with perennial allergic rhinitis: a randomized controlled trial,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2016, Article ID 7896081, 7 pages, 2016.
  3.    Effect of the Use of Intranasal Spray of Essential Oils in Patients with Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Prospective Study

This examination of the latest information about the essential oil Ravintsara

was sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.


Cautions to Remember chart

Ravintsara exploration written by Jeanne Rose 2021

Moderation in All Things.

Be moderate in your use of essential oils as they are just not sustainable for the environment.

Be selective and more moderate in your usage.

Use the herb first as tea or the infusion. —JeanneRose 2014

Ravensara aromatica Sonnerat is a tree endemic to Madagascar. The essential oil extracted from the leaves is used in aromatherapy. Previous chemical studies have generated some confusion about the chemical composition of this essential oil. To eliminate this uncertainty, we undertook a systematic evaluation of the chemical composition of essential oils from leaves of this species. The study focused on 28 individual samples formally identified as R. aromatica. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC–MS. It was possible to distinguish four groups of trees through principal components analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis of the seven chief molecules identified in their essential oils. Two groups were characterized by a prevalence of compounds with an aromatic structure: methyl chavicol (representing more than 90% of the essential oil) in the first group and methyl eugenol (74–82%) in the second group. The predominant compounds of the other two groups proved to be of the monoterpene type: α-terpinene (25–28%) and limonene (15–22%) in the third group, while sabinene (25–34%), linalool (7–21%) and terpinen-4-ol (6–12%) were the primary constituents of the essential oils in the fourth group. The importance of these results for the commercial production of the essential oils from this species is discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Intraspecific chemical variability and highlighting of chemotypes of leaf essential oils from Ravensara aromatica Sonnerat, a tree endemic to Madagascar. By Hanitriniaina Sahondra AndrianoelisoaChantal MenutPhilippe Collas de ChatelperronJérôme SaraccoPanja RamanoelinaPascal Danthu


Yuzu is a citrus grown in Japan that is used for flavoring and fragrance.  The peel is strongly scented and makes a good addition to any blend and in perfumery. Very refreshing odor and taste.

YUZU for Scent and Savor

By Jeanne Rose

A photo of yuzu fruit and the oil distilled from the peel.
Yuzu fruit and oil

NAME ~ YUZU Citrus x junos ((Citrus ichangensis × C. reticulata, formerly C. junos Siebold ex. Tanaka) Yuzu fruit It is like a Grapefruit.

OTHER NAMES ~ It is called Yuja in Korean cuisine

Family ~ Rutaceae

Countries of Origins ~ Yuzu is believed to have originated in China and grows wild in central China and is well-known in Japan and now grown elsewhere.

General description of Plant habitat and growth ~ Yuzu is believed to be a hybrid of sour mandarin and ichang papeda. The fruit looks like a small rougher-skinned grapefruit (much smaller) with its uneven skin and can be either yellow or green depending on the degree of ripeness. Yuzu fruits, which are very aromatic, typically range between 2+ and 3+ inches in diameter but can be as large as a grapefruit. Yuzu is an acidic citrus from China that is grown as rootstock for other citrus varieties & for its fruit. Fruits are acidic and moderately juicy with pleasant citrus aroma and can be used as a lemon substitute. It is unusual among citrus plants in being relatively frost-hardy, due to its cold-hardy C. ichangensis ancestry, and can be grown in regions with winters at least as low as -9 °C (15 °F) where more sensitive citrus would perish. Harvest fruit when ripe, October through December.

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields ~ Yuzu peel is both steam-distilled, solvent extracted for the absolute, and cold-pressed. The oil is traditionally extracted from the peel using the cold press technique and contains limonene (up to 77.0%) as a major constituent. However, the steam-distilled oil has no phototoxicity.

            Yield ~ The overall mean yield is 0.18%.

Picture of various bottles of Yuzu oil and also showing different colors of the oil.
Various bottles of Yuzu oil – Yuzu collection, photo by Jeanne Rose

Organoleptic Characteristics of Yuzu

Color – colorless to pale yellow for the steam-distilled
Clarity – clear
Viscosity – non-viscous
Intensity of odor – 4-5

Taste – sour, umami, citrus

Tenacity –like other citrus and the unique tenacity lasts more than an hour after application.

Odor Assessment – Yuzu has a fine citrus odor, with fruity and floral subsidiary notes. Refrigerate this oil to keep it fresh smelling.

Yuzu fruit
Yuzu fruit


Yuzu has radical-scavenging effects, antioxidant properties and is used in aromatherapy for its fine strong citrus scent.

Application/ Skincare ~ The peel is strongly scented and makes a good addition to blends and in perfumery. The scent is very refreshing. Yuzu in a blend treats the roughness of skin and warms the body.

Diffuse/Diffusion ~ It works well in many sorts of blends as it is invigorating and uplifting emotionally, some use Yuzu energetically as a mood-lifter.

CHEMICAL COMPONENTS of Yuzu ~ “Limonene was the most abundant monoterpene hydrocarbon followed by γ-terpinene and β-phellandrene in Yuzu. The volatile components of yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) cold-pressed oil were analyzed by capillary GC and GC–MS, without prior separation, and compared with those of lemon (Citrus limon Burm. f., cv. Lisbon) grown in Japan. p-Mentha-1,4,8-triene, was newly found among the seventy-seven components identified in the yuzu oil.”1

BLENDS BEST WITH ~ Peel is a good addition to blends when you need astringency and in perfumery for its strong citrus scent. Use as a top note with Bergamot and Lemon.

EO and hydrosol of Yuzu

HYDROSOL of Yuzu is a wonderful fragrant and slightly astringent toner/tonic for skincare.  Save it for your facial care and use orange hydrosol for body care. The fragrance is refreshing and relaxing while it adds its astringency to the water.

HERBAL USES ~ YUZU fruit known for its characteristically strong aroma, and the oil from its skin is marketed as a fragrance. In Japan, bathing with yuzu on Tojio, the Winter solstice, is a custom that dates to at least the early 18th century. Whole yuzu fruits are floated in the hot water of the bath, sometimes enclosed in a cloth bag, releasing their aroma. The fruit may also be cut in half, allowing the citrus juice to mingle with the bathwater. The yuzu bath, known commonly as yuzuyu, but also as yuzuburo, is said to guard against colds, treat the roughness of skin, warm the body, and relax the mind. When Yuzu is in season, use it in your bath – 4-5 sliced in half.

CULINARY USE ~ Fruits are acidic and moderately juicy with pleasant citrus aroma and can be used as a lemon substitute. Citrus junos Tanaka (yuzu) has a strong characteristic aroma, and hence, yuzu juice is used in several Japanese foods. It stays tart and sour if cooked with foods. I keep a bottle of Yuzu Essence in my fridge and use a few drops in sauces for the floral scent, the pleasant tartness and to add umami flavor to my food. Yuzu essence is “extracted on-site after the fruit is hand-harvested from wild stock that grows in the Aki region of Koichi prefecture.”2

Historical Uses ~ Ritual use at the winter Solstice.

Key Use ~ Oil of Relaxing Calm


References ~

1.Volatile components of Japanese yuzu and lemon oils. S.M. Nijoroge, etc., July/August 1994.

Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992

This work is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.


The herbaceous Rosemary oils, have great healing value in skin-and haircare treatments, in a diffuser blend to cleanse the room air and enliven the senses. They are often stimulating, uplifting, and potent. You can use Rosemary oil and the herb as part of a Massage oil, Bath oil, or Skin conditioner.

6 bottles of rosemary oil nestled in a large branch of Rosemary herb
Rosemary herb, essential oil, and CO2 extract

ROSEMARY – plant & Oil Uses

By Jeanne Rose

Introduction ~ Science is an interesting subject and because it is a living study, it often changes, and those changes can be challenging to understand.  In the case of Rosemary, it is the name change that occurred in 2017 that will shake you up.

Common Name/NEW Scientific binomial ~ Salvia rosmarinus (was known as Rosmarinus officinalis) and due to studies done, and DNA analyzed, since 2017 it is a part of the sage genus.

            FAMILY ~ Lamiaceae

Other Names and background ~ The species name, rosmarinus, comes from the Latin words ros (dew) and marinus (sea), or dew of the sea, in probable reference to the ability of this plant to thrive well in coastal areas (sea cliffs) and exposure to ocean mists. 

Countries of Rosemary Origin ~ Salvia rosmarinus (Rosmarinus officinalis) is produced in various countries: the CT camphor is produced in Spain and Croatia; CT verbenone is produced in California, and France; CT cineole is produced in Morocco/US/France.

Endangered ~ Not threatened. This is an introduced plant to the United States and grows well in many areas.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ROSEMARY HABITAT, GROWTH, USES ~ “Rosemary is a perennial evergreen herb that is irregularly mounded and is valued for its fragrant, ornamental foliage and as an enhancement in cooking. It blooms from fall to spring. Key ID elements are the aromatic linear leaves which are green on top and whitish underneath, and also the axillary flowers.”1 It grows well in full sun where it often produces camphor, and it grows well in cool damp sunny areas where it will produce the cineol or verbenone type.

Showing 2 varieties of Rosemary, the large bush type and the smaller type called prostratus
2 varieties of Rosemary, the usual type
and the prostrate type

PORTION OF Rosemary USED IN DISTILLATION, AND YIELDS ~ The leaves, tops, and flowers are harvested, and steam distilled, and CO2 extracted. “Comminuting the pinene type of Rosemary will cause the bioconversion of alpha-pinene to verbenone. [Some plants need to be distilled fresh, some have to be dried, some semi-dried first, some need to be comminuted, that is, cut into smaller pieces, some need to soak for some hours before distillation. Each plant has different distillation parameter requirements.”2

The Yield: The yield can vary from .4 to .7% but is usually in the range of 1.0-2.0%.                      



Showing the chart of the rosemary oils, the description of color, clarity, viscosity, taste, intensity, and tenacity of 5 different oils.

ROSEMARY Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment /Chemistry ~

Chemistry and Components ~ CT verbenone is a favorite with its Rosemary scent with a hint of fruitiness, CT camphor that has the scent of mothballs and is used for the application to pimples, and CT cineol that smells quite herbaceous is the most often used for applications. All Rosemary is very eponymous in its scent with herbaceous, and woody notes.

showing the color differences of 3 chemotypes of Rosemary oil.

§ • §


Rosemary has three main chemotypes and the CO2. CT verbenone is a favorite in skincare and children’s products, CT camphor for application to pimples, and CT cineol in most other applications for pain or aches.

         The camphor type is a vein decongestant, mucolytic, tonic, and possibly diuretic. This type is used for external applications for acne or skincare. Camphor chemotype is produced where it is hot. The camphor type has neuromuscular action that is variable depending on the dose.  It is a venous decongestant by external application and powerful mucolytic by inhalation. We use it in massage blends for muscle cramps, joint pain, all around aches and pains.

         The cineol type is most often used for Respiratory applications, specific for ear and sinus problems, and general external applications for healing. Inhale and apply.

         The verbenone type is used for skincare, for oily or to regenerate the condition of the skin, and in products for delicate or sensitive skin. Inhale and apply.

CO2 Rosemary type. This CO2 extract acts as an antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. It is standardized in Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) seed oil. Rosemary Antioxidant CO2 Extract finds application in formulating creams, lotions, salves, balms and water-free products.

APPLICATION/Skincare ~ Rosemary has three main chemotypes. CT verbenone is a favorite for skincare, haircare and children’s products, with its Rosemary scent hint of fruitiness, CT camphor for application to pimples, and CT cineol in most other applications.

Rosemary has several health-boosting benefits aside from boosting prospective memory, it can be used in massage for pain relief, in bathing as it has antiseptic, antioxidant and astringent and anti-aging properties. Rosemary helps with dry and mature skin to produce more natural oils of its own. Rosemary can also help in getting rid of canker sores.

It is helpful to people who are losing hair and have problems with dandruff as it seems to stimulate hair growth and have less dandruff. Historically, Rosemary has been used to stimulate hair growth. There is one well-known study of 84 people with alopecia areata (a disease in which hair falls out, generally in patches), who massaged their scalps with a combination of Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica) Lavender (high elevation), Rosemary (unknown chemotype) and Thyme every day for 7 months experienced significant hair regrowth compared to those who massaged their scalps without the essential oils. But the study was not well designed, and it is impossible to say whether Rosemary caused the hair growth, or it was the combination of oils.

I have made my own shampoo using Rosemary herb (make a standard herbal infusion) as the base with other herbs, calling it “Dark Hair Shampoo” and have been using it and other shampoos that I enhanced with Rosemary herb and sometimes Rosemary oil and 50 years later at 84 my hair is still dark. I give all the credit to Rosemary.

[Herb Infusion: 1 qt. water to a boil, remove from heat, add 1 oz fresh or 1/2 oz dried herb, infuse 20 minutes, then strain. Use the dark liquid as part of your shampoo and herbal rinse.] You can also sip the infusion as an anti-inflammatory and anti-aging substance.


Diffusion with Rosemary ~ This is a wonderful oil to diffuse, it is spirited, clean-smelling, vibrant, and its effects are stimulating, uplifting and cleansing.  It works in all sorts of blends, particularly herbaceous types and to give sparkling energy to blends with conifers.

Emotional & Energetic ~ Rosemary is feminine in its strength and …” seems to me the wiser, stronger sister of the Lamiaceae family. [Other members are Lavender, Sage and Melissa] Rosemary has spunk and spirit. It is the one to turn to when you feel weak and some stimulation or a strong arm to help you up; it is an oil to remember in the depths of the Canadian winter!” unknown author


BLENDING FOR A PURPOSE ~ Define your purpose and then choose the Rosemary type that best fits the purpose. In certain perfumery odors, you will probably choose the verbenone type, while in massage you will choose the cineol type. Rosemary mixes well with all citrus and citrus scents, resins, Mediterranean herbal scents almost everything except heavy florals.  It is used in Cologne, some fern scents, conifer and forest blends and fresh summer odors.  Keep the camphor type for therapeutic uses.

Showing another picture of Rosemary with the herb
varieties of Rosemary
(Salvia rosmarinus CT pinene and CT cineol)

Culinary ~ The herb used in all sorts of foods; it is delicious, aids health, is anti-aging, and helps in the production of bile.

HERBAL USE OF ROSEMARY ~ Use this herb in your cooking, in your bath, as part of your shampoo for hair growth, in the rinse waters.  Mix herb Rosemary and Lavender together and put in a silk bag and throw into the dryer with clothes to give a clean and fresh scent. Read my book, The Herbal Body Book, for dozens of formulas for the hair, the skin, and the home. The best use is to bathe and shampoo with herbs. Absolutely my favorite is to use herb Rosemary is mixed with Comfrey or Lemon balm and used in the bath as a bath herb (at least a full ounce by weight of the herb(s).

Hydrosol ~ This should be picked and distilled in full flower or just before full flower. At this time the hydrosol will be sweet while later it may be camphoraceous.  This hydrosol is stimulating both by external application and internal use.  This is the rejuvenating and ‘holding back old age’ hydrosol. It can be taken a teaspoon at a time in a glass of water as a tonic drink, bathed in, used in shampoo or skin care; in other words, submerse yourself in Rosemary herb tea, Rosemary herb and hydrosol baths, and Rosemary essential oil inhalations.  The herbal extract and essential oil (and why not the hydrosol) show some powerful uses in diminishing the effects of Alzheimer’s. It is stimulating and when distilled averages 5.5 pH ± .1 …

HYDROSOL — PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

a bottle of colorless Rosemary hydrosol and the bush it came from.
Salvia rosmarinus

HISTORY & INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT ROSEMARY ~ French folklore says that combing the hair once a day with a rosemary wood comb would prevent giddiness and modern folklore says use Rosemary in shampoo and hair rinse helps hair to grow.  We also know that it is antioxidant and an anti-aging addition both to the diet and to skincare products.

“For you there’s rosemary and rue; these keep seeming and savour all the winter long: Grace and remembrance be to you….” — W. Shakespeare, The Winter’s Tale

Key Use ~ The Herb of Remembrance and the Oil of Anti-Aging and Stimulation

This work is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.



Books as Reference

Coombs, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press. 1995
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing. Florida. 1976
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose. San Francisco California, 1992
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. San Francisco, California.
Rose, Jeanne. Herbs & Things. Last Gasp Press (ask them to republish it)


Some cautions to remember with herbs and essential oils.

Moderation in All Things.
Be moderate in your use of essential oils as they are just not sustainable for the environment.
Be selective and more moderate in your usage.
Use the herb first as tea or the infusion. —JeanneRose 2014

Always Look at the color of the essential oils

Another photos of the Rosemary oils and herb.
Beautiful rosemary

Orange & Blood Orange oil

The warm sparkling bright citrus oils, including the ORANGE & Blood Orange, have great value in diffuser blends to cleanse the room air and refresh the senses. They are often very calming, soothing, and relaxing. You can use Orange oil as part of a Massage oil, Bath oil, or Skin conditioner.


By Jeanne Rose

Photo of cold-pressed oils of Orange and Blood orange with some fruits and a art nouveau paperweight.
photo by Jeanne Rose of PrimaFleur oils of Orange and Blood Orange


ORANGE Introduction ~ The citrus is so beautiful and so healthful for eating, and — is just delicious. The cold-pressed oil has a serious sweetness and bright happiness that makes it super in blends for mental health.

SCIENTIFIC NAME OF THE ORANGE ~ Oranges have had many scientific names in the past, but Citrus x aurantium is now the standard. Citrus taxonomy is often inconsistent and confusing because there are only five pure original Citrus genus, and there are dozens maybe hundreds of varieties and combinations of these five.

______Family ~ Rutaceae

Countries of Origins ~ Big juicy Oranges and blood Oranges are no longer known in the wild, it is surmised that they originated in China.

Endangered or Not ~ Orange plant and most of its varieties are not considered endangered in any way; however, the wild Orange plant of India is considered endangered because of its very specific growing and habitat needs.

Navel oranges - photo by Jeanne Rose
Navel oranges at the Farmer’s Market

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ORANGE PLANT HABITAT AND GROWTH ~ This is a small, evergreen tree that can be propagated by seeds, but the seeds will probably not grow true to form; or propagate by grafting on a suitable rootstock. It has large dark green leaves; white flowers, and the fruit has a sweet pulp that is deliciously juicy. The orange is a hybrid between a pomelo (Citrus maxima) and a Mandarin (Citrus reticulata).

Portion of plant used in distillation, and yields: Citrus peel is either steam-distilled or cold-pressed for Orange oil. The peel is also Solvent extracted for the absolute.

            Yield ~ Orange peel oil yields up to 0.5% by cold pressing.

a chart with the organoleptic characteristics of Orange Peel and Blood Orange oil
Sensory aspects of Orange Peel and Blood Orange

Orange Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment ~ Blood Orange has a rich scent brimming with citrus, and a subsidiary note of fruit, and green and herbal back notes; the scent is deeper and the flavor more intense and fruitier like berries because of the content of red anthocyanins.  Sweet orange is the same with orange carotenoid pigments and less scent and less intense on all levels.

            Language is important in recognizing smells.  An important part of perfumery training is to develop in common an odor language based on olfactory standards.  The possession of such an odor language increases the powers of discrimination. If you can name it, you own it.

CHEMICAL COMPONENTS of Orange Scent ~ Varieties of citrus are often based on scent chemistry especially the component limonene which has a chiral difference — both a left-turning molecule, (S) for sinistral with the sour smell of Lemon or Bitter Orange,  and a right-turning molecule, for right hand or clockwise or dextral, the sweet smell of Oranges. This is the reason we all as lovers of essential oils and aromatherapy need to learn some chemistry along with good taxonomy.

            “(+)-limonene or D-limonene (dextral) is the main constituent of this oil.  The aldehyde content of Sweet Orange oil is the measure of the oil.  The preferred Valencia oil possesses up to 3% aldehydes. One of which is decadienal with an extremely high aroma value.   Other constituents that contribute to the character and quality of Orange oil are the sinensals. X-sinensal has a high orange aroma scent and low odor threshold while b-sinensal has a metallic-fishy note that can be very objectionable.

            The difference between Orange and Grapefruit oil can be as simple as the amount of (+)-valencene. When the amount of a-terpineol exceeds normal level, off-notes occur.  This terpineol forms during the aging or oxidation of orange juice.  (Some essential oil of Orange is indeed produced from Orange Juice). The acetates contribute to the floral notes of Orange oil.”1


Shows the color of orange oil and blood orange oil with the fruit.
Beautiful Orange oil and fruit



The essential oil of Orange is antiseptic, taking the peel as a tea is antispasmodic and slightly diuretic,
both oil and peel are purifying, stomachic; when inhaled in a blend or massage the oil can be calming and sedating; and in skin care or by external application it has antiseptic properties.

_______Application/ Skincare of Orange oil ~ When using Orange oil or any citrus oil in skincare products, never apply directly and always use with a carrier oil or in a blend in the product. Orange is an antioxidant protecting the skin from damage, free radicals, and excess pigmentation and it is an antiseptic.  This can be a useful addition in a skincare product besides the lovely odor.

_______Diffuse/Diffusion ~ The citrus especially the Orange and Blood Orange are wonderful in perfumes, blends, massage oils and they are particularly useful in all types of room sprays or in diffusion. It is a calming, sedative, tonic, and purifying scent. These two oils are a happy, cheerful scent.  Here is one formula.

Orange/Blood Orange Floral Herbal Scent
2 parts each of Orange and Blood Orange
+ 1 part each of Ylang complete and Rosemary verbenone.
Mix together and succuss thoroughly.
Inhale as needed to uplift the emotions and ease tension.

         Emotional & Energetic Uses the Orange oil ~ The oil can be used by inhalation and is most often recommended for obsessions, or to stimulate the appetite, and to improve your self-image by boosting self-confidence. The oil is also added to blends in massage to also boost these feeling.


BLENDS AND PERFUMERY WITH ORANGE ~ “Citrus oils are used in the perfumery business to impart a fresh, sparkling note to any blend.  They are usually not overpowering.  They can be used in up to 25% as the base for classic type of eau de cologne.  Citrus oils harmonize with a large number of other essential oils and they are used in different concentrations in almost all scent blends and modern perfumes”.1

Perfume formula called Citrus Nectar
Nectar for the Gods, reminiscent of delirious perfume prepared by men of the cloth for generations

All essential oils can be purchased from PrimaFleur Botanicals.

BLENDS BEST with most other scents including all other citrus, herbal scents, Mediterranean scents (Lavender, Rosemary, Marjoram, etc.), florals, and resins. Orange oil is much used in blends and perfumery as the scent is so pleasing; Blood Orange has more intensity, fruitiness, and tenacity that sweet Orange.

Classic Type of Eau De Cologne

The company 4711 has the Original Eau de Cologne formula. “It consists of seven main ingredients which have relied upon since 1792: Lemon, Orange, Bergamot, Lavender, Rosemary, Petitgrain and Neroli. Is it a traditional product? Of course! Is it monotonous? Never! Splash it, spray it, do whatever you want with it, it’s yours. Take a deep breath for a moment of freshness, relaxation and calm.” – from 4711 website.

old formula for eau de cologne
Formula for Eau de Cologne


 HYDROSOL ~ A well-distilled hydrosol from either citrus flowers, citrus peel, or whole citrus can be obtained.  The hydrosol of bitter Orange flowers is specifically called Neroli.  All these Citrus hydrosols are easily used – in baths, in facial masks, as toners or in many products and they all have positive benefits for the skin, especially for dry or dehydrated skin.  Neroli hydrosol is popular in cooking and in cocktails but be aware that it does not seem to keep very well, oxidizes, and often molds easily.

            PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

Blood Oranges at the market
Blood Orange – photo by JeanneRose

HERBAL USES OF ORANGE PEEL ~ The peel of the Orange has many uses. It can be sliced from the Orange, dried, and added to bath herb mixtures where it acts as an antiseptic aromatic.  If you powder the dried herb peel you can mix it with clay or powdered Almonds and use in your facial mask for dry and oily skin.  This peel can be simmered for a few minutes in water and the water used in herbal shampoos for oily scalp or dandruff and it can also be added to vinegar rinses for these same conditions. Orange flowers are dried and used in potpourris or mashed up with other facial herbs and used to condition the skin.

HISTORY & INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT THE ORANGE: “By the 1500, Spanish colonists spread Oranges in the New World, now called the Americas and soon, Oranges were grown on an island off Sao Paulo in Brazil. Ponce de Leon is alleged to have brought the first orange trees to Florida, in the early 1500s.2”The Orange is the most cultivated fruit tree in the world.

            The oil is used for flavoring food, drink, and confectionery, Curacao type liqueurs, and for flavoring cigarette paper. 

Key Use ~ The Oil of Refreshment (for antiseptic and digestive problems).



1. Ohloff, Günther:  SCENT AND FRAGRANCES: Springer-Verlag. 1990. Translated by Pickenhagen and Lawrence

2. Wikipedia

Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin, 1960
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Rose, Jeanne. The Herbal Body Book.
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992

This work is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.


Safety Precautions chart

Contraindications ~ Some citrus when handled and especially Bergamot and Lime oil cold pressed will cause photosensitivity when used undiluted or if you are exposed to sun directly after application. These citruses contain furanocoumarins, (natural chemicals found in some essential oils). Be wary. Keep total amounts of these under 2% of the total of your blend or perfume.  Lime peel oil or any citrus steam-distilled does not have the plant components that cause photosensitivity.


Juniper berry oil

JUNIPER plant & Essential Oil Profile

Juniper Berry benefits and uses. This oil come from the female seed cone that produces Juniper “berries”; Juniperus communis L. Juniper berries are used to flavor gin and liqueurs and eaten with meat; there is a French form has rather sweeter (fruitier) berries that I prefer to use to flavor drinks. Berries are diuretic and the oil or CO2 is wonderful in many blends as an anti-inflammatory, to ease pain of aching joints.

By Jeanne Rose ~ May 2021

3 Juniper berry oil, showing colors and types.
3 types of Juniper berry oil

Common  & Scientific Name ~  Juniper tree or Juniper berry oil comes from the berries of  Juniperus communis. Do not confuse this tree and its oil with other trees that have ‘juniper’ in the name.

Other Common Name/Naming Information – There are other trees in this family that are called Juniper but here we are limiting the discussion to Juniperus communis and not to the pencil-cedar called either ‘cedar’ or Juniper, or the Juniper tree that produces Cade oil. 

See a longer article at

_____Family ~ Cupressaceae

Countries of Origins ~ This tree is limited to cool, temperate climates such as areas in India and Bulgaria. Varieties of J. communis and different berry-bearing species also grow on the west coast of the United States and are used in the production of local gin.

Endangered or Not ~ This tree is threatened or endangered in several areas. I have found this species in the local San Francisco Botanical Garden.

General description of Plant habitat and growth of Juniperus communis ~ This conifer belongs to the Cupressaceae family and the leaves are stiff and prickly, needle-like. It grows up to 18-feet but is generally kept pruned closer to the ground for the berries. 1st-year berries are green and have a fresh bright flavor and are usually allowed to mature another year when they turn brown to black before they are harvested to steam-distill or to be carbon dioxide extracted for a flavorant. 

Portion of the plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: ~ Steam-distilled or COfrom the merged scales of the cone, the berries, are the part that we usually just call Juniper oil. Entire branchlets are harvested for hydro-distillation for hydrosol use.

Yield ~ The 2nd year berries are harvested in the fall and 100 kilos yield 1 kilo of SD essential oil.  0.2 – 2.0% for berry oil.

2nd year black Juniper berries and a trees branch showing 1st year pale blue berries.
Juniper berries and the tree branch

Organoleptic qualities of essential oil and extract of Juniper berrry, showing the color, clarity, viscosity, intensity of scent and tenacity in a blend.

• Odor Description/
Aroma Assessment ~ The steam-distilled essential oil from Bulgaria has a rather intense herbaceous odor with back notes of spicy, wood, and fruit while the CO2 example had a soft spicy, floral, and fruity odor – quite different and would obviously behave differently in a blend when contained other odors. The CO2 most closely resembles the scent of the berry.


GENERAL PROPERTIES of Juniper Berry oil

Properties and Uses ~ Juniper berries can be eaten or taken as a tea; the essential oil and CO2 extract can be used by inhalation and application.

           Juniper berries are a crucial component of gin. The 1st year berries have a much different taste than the mature 2nd year berries.

The properties are antiseptic, diuretic, tonic, and depurative (purifying). The essence by Inhalation is a tonic, brain tonic, and helpful in respiratory complaints as an expectorant. The essence used in blends by application or massage is antiseptic, astringent, skin cleansing for oily skin.

            When I travel, especially by air or even by train, I like to eat a berry or two to alleviate jet lag or for change-of-location.

Application/Skincare ~ Juniper berry oil is a valuable addition to skin and body care products due to its astringent and antiseptic qualities and is a wonderful addition in an astringent cleanser for the skin. It is a wonderful odor and deodorizer in men’s products.

Diffuse/Diffusion ~ Juniper berry oil can be diffused in a blend with other oils that are less intense in scent, such as Rosemary, Lavender, citrus oils. It has a very cleansing effect on the air, and is refreshing

Emotional/Energetic Use: Inhale Juniper berry oil for mental exhaustion, or to visualize being guarded from negative thinking and guard from danger. Be Positive.

A branchlet of Juniper with the berries and the three oils next to it.

Blends Best with most citrus oils, other wood oils such as Atlas Cedar, the Mediterranean herbs such as Clary Sage, Lavender, Rosemary, and the base oils such as Oakmoss, Labdanum, Vetivert and Patchouli.

Green Harmony – An Herbal Perfume
Cedrus atlantica (wd) 3 drops
Citrus aurantium ssp bergamia (pl) 6 drops
Juniperus communis (berr) 3 drops
Ocimum basilicum (lvs) 1 drop
Salvia sclarea (lvs) 5

Sports Blend – Aching Muscles and Joints
5 drops Sage EO
5 drops Basil EO
5 drops Cypress EO (Cupressus sempervirens)
5 drops Juniper Berry EO
5 drops Lemon EO
5 drops Rosemary EO
2 oz carrier oil, especially recommended is Bruise Juice
Vigorously massage aching areas as often as needed 


General All Over Massage Oil for Pain ~ To one ounce of carrier oil, add 3-4 drops each of Rose Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), Juniper berry (Juniperus communis) and Lemon (Citrus limon).

Blending with formula One of my favorite blends is Juniper Berry mixed with Sage, Cypress, Lemon, Basil for the relief of all sports injuries, bruising, aching muscles, and external massage for cellulite and relaxing after exercise.

Chemical Components ~ Alpha-Pinene, Sabinene, Myrcene, Camphene, and Terpineol.

HYDROSOL of Juniper berry ~ A refreshing addition to your skincare routine, especially for troubled, acneic, or oil skin and hair.

________PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

Historical Uses ~ “Common juniper was used by Native Americans of the Great Basin as a blood tonic. Native Americans from the Pacific Northwest used tonics made from the branches to treat colds, flu, arthritis, muscle aches, and kidney problems. Cones were used by the southern Kwakiutl of British Columbia for treating stomach ailments and wood or bark was used to treat respiratory problems. The Interior Salish used cones to make medicines for a variety of ailments. Eurasians made tonics from common juniper for kidney and stomach ailments, and for muscular uses and rheumatism.”1

Key Use ~ The Oil of Edema from Aromatherapy – Home&Family2



  2. Aromatherapy – Home & Family course

Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992

owner of Prima Fleur in her favorite environment - Nature
Marianne Griffeth in her favorite environment ~ Nature

This article is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.

Safety Precautions


CLEMENTINE – fruit & scent

The warm sparkling bright citrus oils, including the lovely Clementine, have great value in diffuser blends to cleanse the room air and refresh the senses. They are often very calming, soothing and relaxing. You can use Clementine oils as part of a Massage oil, Bath oil, or Skin conditioner.

CLEMENTINE ~ a Variety of Mandarin – Uses

By Jeanne Rose

A photo of Clementine oil showing color and clarity with some fruit Clementine


All Clementines are Mandarins, but not all Mandarins are Clementines.

Clementine Introduction ~ The citrus is so beautiful and so healthful for eating, and Clementine is just delicious. The cold-pressed oil has a serious sweetness and bright happiness that makes it super in blends for mental health.

Clementine. LATIN BINOMIAL AND NAMING ~ Citrus x aurantium forma Clementine

            Yes, the first two words are the same exact name as is used for Orange and Grapefruit and Bitter Orange-Neroli. But there are strict rules on naming and citrus has been examined and analyzed for parentage for quite some time. In the past it was called Citrus aurantium, C. aurantium var. clementine and other names with the  ‘C’ always meaning Citrus.

            Citrus taxonomy  is confusing and often inconsistent. They are all named with common names and with scientific binomials using Latin grammar rules. Citrus often have the same parentage but have different names or body shapes or formae often based on terroir (such as Mandarin in Italy and Tangerine in the USA).

Other Names and background ~ Clementine is also called tangor which is a hybrid between Mandarin and sweet Orange. Names include clementine (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis var. Clementine), Citrus clementine Hort. ex Tan. 

Family ~ Rutaceae

Countries of Origin ~ Clementine originated in either Algeria or China and are now grown in California and Florida, Morocco, Spain, Italy, and China.

Endangered ~ Clementine is itself not necessarily endangered, but it is worrisome for growers because they do not want the flowering crop to be pollinated by bees that have been in other groves.  They often net the trees during the pollination period so that the crop  will not become another variety due to cross pollination.

CLEMENTINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF PLANT HABITAT AND GROWTH ~ Clementine is a hybrid and a  winter hardy type of mandarin that can be grown outdoors in Florida and do well in a container. Today, the easy-peel form called Clementine was created by Pierre Clément in a lucky crossing experiment around 1900 when he was a leader of the agricultural school in Oran in Algeria.1 They are harvested from February to April depending on the area.

            Flavedo- Citrus essential oils are cold-pressed from the peel which contain the oil sacs or glands located irregularly in the outer mesocarp or flavedo of the fruit (Matthews and Braddock 1987). These glands are embedded at different depths in this colored, outer portion of the fruit and must be removed by first rupturing the glands by pressure or mechanical rasping (Matthews and Braddock 1987).

PORTION OF PLANT USED IN EXTRACTION AND YIELD ~ The peel of Clementine is cold-pressed, and yield is best if the fruit is semi-mature, and the plant was bee pollinated. Harvest time has a significant effect on essential oil yield. 

A chart showing the organoleptics of Clementine oil with taste and intensity of odor.
How your senses perceive Clementine oil

            Odor Description ~ Cold-pressed Clementine scent predominates in a powerful citrus, fruity, and floral note, a subsidiary note of green and wood, and with a back note of powder and spice. It is just delicious smelling. The oil can improve in cold storage if kept carefully in a fully filled container in a cool, dark place. The dissolved waxes will settle out and the oil be clear and more soluble.

Chemistry ~ Clementine contains considerable amounts of methyl N-methyl anthranilate, myrcene, linalool,  as well as up to 96% limonene. (GC-MS did not say which limonene was present, but it is most likely the d-limonene or R-limonene). “The limonene structure has a chiral center, and thus it can be found in nature as one of the two enantiomers, the (R)- and (S)-limonene. The R isomer has the characteristic sweet smell of oranges while the S isomer has a smell more like a piney turpentine.”3

Citrus with the same parentage may have different  scent chemistry such as (limonene which has a chiral difference — both a left turning molecule, (S) for sinistral with  the sour smell of Lemon and a right turning molecule, (R) for right hand or clockwise, the sweet smell of Oranges). This is the reason we all as lovers of essential oils and aromatherapy need to learn some chemistry along with good taxonomy.     

Clementine also contains p‐synephrine, an example of a non‐stimulant thermogenic agent as well as a natural decongestant.


Soothing, relaxing, toning, slightly antiseptic, and refreshing to the senses.

Blending Clementine for Purpose ~ The warm sparkling bright citrus oils, including the lovely Clementine, have great value in diffuser blends to cleanse the room air and refresh the senses. They are often very calming, soothing and relaxing. Mandarin, Tangerine and Clementine will blend well with all other citrus, and can feminize chypre blends, warm-up woody blends and work to brighten any floral blend.

            Use Clementine as part of a Massage oil, Bath oil, or Skin conditioner. The cold-pressed oil is used in shampoo, and massage oil,  to brighten the scent. In skincare it is added to help with oily skin, and for sensitive skin; the scent improves the mood and lifts the spirit and used in a carrier oil of your choice as a skin toner (just add enough Clementine oil to very lightly scent the toner).

Sweet Smell of Happiness

Here is a good blend for diffusing in your home.

10 drops each of Neroli of Tunisia,

10 drops yellow Mandarin, and 10 drops of red Mandarin,

And  especially at least 10 drops of Clementine,

Plus 7-10 drops of Mace (Nutmeg is too strong).

Succuss, and either add enough alcohol to make it 25% for a room spray

 or add to 1-oz of carrier oil and use for massage

or put straight into the diffuser to make your home a happy place.


Herbal ~ The peel can be used in healing salves where it lends a refreshing scent and acts as an antioxidant. It is also used in potpourri as well as pressed and dried and used to make ‘boxes’ for trinkets.

showing a container made of citrus skin
a box made of citrus skin

Culinary ~ Delicious, when eaten out of hand. As with any citrus, they contain antioxidants including vitamin C and this helps with fiber intake, and health as well as improving  one’s appearance. The juice contains p-synephrine which is a natural decongestant.

>Note ~ A 2017 study indicated that clementine phytochemicals (methyl anthranilate) may interact with drugs in a manner similar to those of grapefruit.

Clementine Interesting Information ~ Clementine was studied at the Citrus Research Center (now part of the University of California, Riverside) as early as 1909. Clementine’s lose their desirable seedless characteristic when they are cross-pollinated with other fruit. In 2006, to prevent this, growers such as Paramount Citrus in California threatened to sue local beekeepers to keep bees away from their crops. In Morocco ‘further experiments confirmed the fact that the seedless condition is the result of self-pollination. The presence of bees to effect pollination is necessary if a good yield is to be maintained.”2

                  Clementine, Citrus x reticulata, is used as a stocking stuffer during the Christmas holiday, and is one of the smallest members of the citrus. The Clementine  is honey-sweet, and seedless, and is a subgroup of the Tangerine with a thin skin that is very easy to peel.

            Clementine developed as a spontaneous citrus hybrid in Algeria, in the garden of an orphanage of a French missionary in the very early 1900’s.

Key Uses ~ The Oil of Diffusion©

Olsen Ranch Clementine & Prima Fleur oil



2. A further contribution to the study of the Clementine in Morocco. Foreign Title : Nouvelle contribution á l’étude du Clémentinier au Maroc. author(s) : Lacarelle, A. ;  Miedzykzecki, Ch.. Book : Terre marocaine 1937 pp.22 pp.
3. Hubert Marceau who is at

This work is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.


Cautions and Precautions to remember with plants and their parts.
Precautions to Remember
the symbol of wafting