CISTUS-Labdanum

 Labdanum and Cistus are not the same, but they come from the same plant, and both have an important use in perfumery – both with a luscious fragrant, rich scent. This profile provides a detailed description of growth, description, chemistry, odor, and uses.

CISTUS/Labdanum Resin & E.O./Hydrosol Profile

By Jeanne Rose ~ January 2023

A photo of Cistus leaves with a bottle of Cistus essential oil superimposed on the leaves.

CISTUS LADANIFER – TThe Plant That Produces Cistus Oil And Labdanum Resin

CISTUS ~  This plain plant, with its wondrous resin and fragrant oil, has been one of my favorites since I first learned of it back in 1969. I knew of Cistus as a plant growing in the San Francisco Arboretum. However, here in San Francisco, it has very little odor as it doesn’t get hot enough. One day, some time ago, in June, when it was clear, sunny, and very hot, I rubbed the leaves, which were sticky and fragrant. That is when I began to study it in my antiquarian herbals, including Dioscorides, which I had acquired in 1970. How can anyone ignore a plant once harvested from the wool of goats?

COMMON NAME/LATIN BINOMIAL OF CISTUS and LABDANUM are two products of the  Cistus ladanifer (syn. ladaniferous)plant, also called Rockrose. Cistus is the essential oil distilled from the leaves and twigs and the resin called Labdanum that is scraped from the leaves. Cistus species used for Cistus E.O. and Labdanum resin include Cistus creticus and the subspecies incanus).

            Family ~ Cistaceae is a family of perennial shrubs and flowering plants found on dry and rocky soil with about 20 species.

            Other Common Name/Naming Information: Cistus is from the Greek and simply means Rock rose because they frequent rocky places, and this is a  common name that is given to several other species of plants as well. The typical Greek word is simply ladan. Cistus ladanifer is also called the gum Rockrose, and the resin is called Labdanum.

          NAMING MISINFORMATION ~ Some people misspell and misuse the word laudanum for Labdanum. Laudanum (a ‘u’ not a ‘b’) is a tincture of opium containing approximately 10% powdered opium by weight (the equivalent of 1% morphine). It is reddish-brown and extremely bitter. Labdanum (with a ‘b’ not a ‘u’) is the resin from the plant Cistus.   

COUNTRIES OF ORIGINS ~ Portugal, Morocco, Spain, and the Canary Islands.

            Harvest Location ~ Spain, and my Cistus hydrosol is from Portugal.

ENDANGERED OR NOT ~ It is on the list of threatened plants. These plants are considered to be threatened and/or endangered due to heavy usage, people moving into the areas where they live, and over-tapping.

SUSTAINABILITY ~  These items may not be sustainable in the amounts used.

Cistus leaves and flowers

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF PLANT HABITAT AND GROWTH: Cistus ladanifer is an evergreen shrub and grows quickly to a height of about 5 feet and 3+ feet wide. They are heat-loving (thermophilous plants) and require open sunny places. Its flowers are in June, and though they have both male and female parts, they are incompatible. Some books suggest that it is self-fertile. The plant is bee-pollinated. The flowers are white or pink with a simple structure. Cistus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some butterfly species. The petals are papery and crumpled, most commonly pure white, with numerous bright yellow stamens in the center, and there is also a form that has a dark purple or crimson blotch at the base of each petal. The leaves are elongated and covered with glandular trichomes that secrete a viscous gummy balsam that exudes when it is hot. Because of the content of pinene in the resin, the plant is quite flammable, possibly can self-ignite, and is responsible for some severe fires. Spain is a leading producer of Cistus and Labdanum.

PORTION OF PLANT USED IN DISTILLATION, HOW DISTILLED, EXTRACTION METHODS, AND YIELDS:

Cistus ladanifer is the essential oil distilled from the leaves and twigs of the same plant that produces Labdanum from the resin. Cistus #267, organically grown and wild from Cistus ladanifer, is steam distilled from the leaf in Spain.

Yield: Results are discussed from 0.1% to 0.3%.

”            Labdanum resin is obtained by collecting and boiling the twigs in the spring and early summer, skimming off the resin as it comes to the surface.”Labdanum Absolute is obtained by solvent extraction of the resin – and is very different in scent, color, and viscosity from steam-distilled Cistus essential oil from the leaves.”            Labdanum resin is obtained by collecting and boiling the twigs in the spring and early summer, skimming off the resin as it comes to the surface.Labdanum Absolute is obtained by solvent extraction of the resin – and is very different in scent, color and viscosity from steam distilled Cistus essential oil from the leaves.”

CISTUS SPP. ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS

A chart of the Cistus and Labdanum resin organoleptics

            Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment: Cistus E.O. has a distinctively warm, fruity-floral scent, a rich herbaceous scent, with notes of a leather-hay odor that is intense but less tenacious than Labdanum and is used with Lavender in spicy men’s products.

            Labdanum has a rich, tenacious, but not intense odor of sweetness,  smoky-woody, leather, powder, and earthy-moss, with back notes of honey, warm animals, and floral with fruity overtones.

I love these two odors and find them extraordinarily useful in many perfume applications. The Labdanum recalls the odor of ambergris and is used as a vegetable substitute for ambergris in a perfume base note or as a fixative. The aroma is tenacious in a blend but not intense; it lends a subtle richness to any perfume you use it in. (See page 97 of 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols for other vegetable substitutes for the animal fixatives).

CHEMISTRY OF CISTUS (Rockrose) ~  The essential oil of Rockrose was characterized by a high content of 1,8-cineole (19.27%) and viridiflorol (16.38%), while the predominant compounds in Montpellier cistus essential oil were 1,8-cineole (9.17%), bornyl acetate (9.14%) and α-pinene (5.84%).5

           Chemical Components of Labdanum ~ “The main components were α‐pinene (39%), viridiflorol (11.8%), ledol (3.3%), and bornyl acetate (3.1%). ….Two samples exhibited a different chemical composition, not as yet described, characterized by the predominance of viridiflorol (20–22.6%), ledol (6.4–6.7%), and trans‐pinocarveol (5.4–8.6%).” © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. — Composition of the Essential Oil of Cistus ladanifer L. Cultivated in Corsica (France) by J. P. Mariotti, F. Tomi, J. Casanova, J. Costa, A. F. Bernardini, First published: 28 April 1999

Leaves and flowers of Cistus with a bottle of Cistus  essential oil

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GENERAL PROPERTIES of CISTUS

            Cistus essential oil distilled from the leaves and twigs is considered a wound healer, and as with most essential oils, it has antiviral and antibacterial properties. Inhale the oil to boost the immune system and reduce colds and infections resulting from the flu. Cistus is considered antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-arthritic.

            Labdanum is the sticky brown resin obtained from the shrubs of Cistus ladanifer (western Mediterranean) and Cistus creticus (eastern Mediterranean), species of Rockrose.

CISTUS APPLICATION/SKINCARE USES ~ Cistus EO and tea of the leaves have great application in skin care, particularly oily skin, acne skin, and irritated skin. Use the EO in your lotions, other creams, and clay masks using white clay. It is used for mature skin, wrinkles, and the EO as an inhalant for coughs and bronchitis.

Cistus Anti-Wrinkle Lotion,

a recipe by Jeanne Rose

            I like to purchase an 8-oz bottle of pre-made unscented lotion with organically grown ingredients and then add my own unique additions. If the lotion is thick, I will thin it with some Rosemary or Cistus hydrosol until it is the texture I like. Then I add 5 drops of Cistus E.O. to an ounce of my thinned lotion. I add the drops, and with a long narrow thin wooden spoon, I stir in the E.O., stirring around and around, up and down, figure 8 round and round. This is a singsong that I do until the E.O. and hydrosol is thoroughly incorporated into the lotion. I only make an ounce at a time as it is easy to do and keeps the balance of the lotion fresh to make something else with. I apply this Cistus Lotion alternately with the Elemi/Galbanum Lotion every evening before bed.

 http://jeanne-blog.com/elemi-resin-herb-eo/

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EMOTIONAL/ENERGETIC USES ~ I have never found Cistus essential oil to have much emotional effect, and it has rarely been mentioned in my past classes. However, Labdanum is used by inhalation and is considered to have a powerful ability to bring up past lives and past or buried memories. It is conducive to ritual work.

Diffuse/Diffusion ~ You can add Cistus E.O. to a blend for a diffuser for the fresh sharp scent. It will give a room. However, do not diffuse Labdanum, as it is a sticky resin, and even the steam-distilled product can gum up your diffusor. I suggest you learn to use this substance in other ways and use the Labdanum and the Cistus essential oil in your perfumes.

 “HYDROSOL USES ~ Cistus hydrosol is available and just an excellent product to use. It is bright and fresh and cleansing to the skin. I get mine from “Naturalness” in Portugal, which is available through them. This excellent product is harvested using the stems and the leaves and steam-distillation.  

                Use it as a spray after putting on make-up to set it, or on your clothes that have been crushed in a suitcase to freshen them, or on the pillows before sleep. I am particularly fond of Cistus hydrosol.

            The distiller recommends Cistus hydrosol as a powerful but gentle astringent. It is used as a daily toner for highly oily, acne-prone, or irritated skin. Only use a 20% solution with other hydrosols or distilled water for dry skin.

A bottle of Cistus hydrosol

PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under short pressurized steam runs for essential oil or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers precisely distill a product by using fresh plant material.

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HERBAL USES ~ “The use of the Cistus incanus has a long history and can be traced back to the 4th century B.C. In the Middle East, northern Africa, and the European Mediterranean region, the Cistus incanus was enjoyed as a wellness tea for breakfast and right throughout the day as a drink for relaxing after a strenuous day. When guests arrived, offering a freshly boiled pot of Cistus tea was common. “The knowledge of the benefits of this tea were passed on late into the Middle Ages.3

                  Properties and Uses of the Herb ~ Cistus leaf tea is helpful for children’s illnesses such as whooping cough and for adults for general all-over body inflammation.

            Cistus tea is used as a treatment for Lyme Disease. The study’s conclusion showed that to date, clinical work with wild-harvested pure Sardinian Cistus tea and whole-leaf Stevia is the least invasive yet most effective treatment for Lyme disease and many other chronic chronic chronic illnesses caused by persistent and hidden infections.

            See the entire article at https://kiscience.com/sardinian-cistus-incanus/.

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JEANNE ROSE’S TOMATO TALES

A Personal Story of Labdanum

            Labdanum resin/resinoid/absolute/E.O. is a favorite of mine, and when I teach Perfumery classes, I encourage the students to use my absolute which dates back to 1969. We make an old perfume called Chypre in class. See formulas in my Natural Perfumery booklet.

‘            Years ago, about 1970, I made a mixture of Labdanum resin that I had read in a 400-year-old herbal that also used Benzoin and Storax with Civet, spike Lavender, and spices. It was to be inhaled to’‘comforte the brain.’ It looked exciting and certainly doable, and whose brain does not need a certain amount of comforting. I found it was like playing with mud and very messy. I wrote about this in my first book, Herbs & Things, and if you want to try it, there are two recipes on pages 153-154.’            Years ago, about 1970, I made a mixture of Labdanum resin that I had read in a 400-year-old herbal that also used Benzoin and Storax with Civet, spike Lavender, and spices. It was to be inhaled to ‘comforte the brain.’ It looked exciting and certainly doable, and whose brain does not need a certain amount of comforting. I found it was like playing with mud and very messy. I wrote about this in my first book, Herbs & Things, and if you want to try it, there are two recipes on pages 153-154.

‘            These raw resins can stick almost permanently to everything. If you make it ““keep one mortar and pestle aside just for this type of recipe or any recipe that calls for the heating or’‘beating’ of a resin. It was nearly impossible to roll the combination into a ball, especially with the stinky civet, so I finally dipped my hands into the powdered Benzoin and Storax (sort of like dipping your hands into flour to roll out bread or cookie dough) and rolled the resin around. This gooey mess stuck tenaciously to my hands, and it took two days to wash it all off, but at least now I had a ball of resin. I then pierced the ball with a bodkin (big blunt needle with a big eye) and hung it from a string.’            These raw resins can stick almost permanently to everything. If you make it …  “keep one mortar and pestle aside just for this type of recipe or any recipe that calls for the heating or ‘beating’ of a resin. It was nearly impossible to roll the combination into a ball, especially with the stinky civet, so I finally dipped my hands into the powdered Benzoin and Storax (sort of like dipping your hands into flour to roll out bread or cookie dough) and rolled the resin around. This gooey mess stuck tenaciously to my hands, and it took two days to wash it all off, but at least now I had a ball of resin. I then pierced the ball with a bodkin (big blunt needle with a big eye) and hung it from a string.

            It immediately oozed away from the string, plopped to the ground, and proceeded to ooze amoebically about the floor, peeling up paint as it went. It was then that I finally realized the exact nature of this pomander. It was and is ever flowing and takes on the shape of whatever object it is on or in. I captured the now pancake-shaped resin, rolled more Storax into it, and put it on the ledge above a window. Within a day, it had migrated off the shelf and down the wall. It smelled deliciously but it left a trail of black resin (rather like the slime trail of a snail). Again, I captured it, and this time rolled it up and stuck it in the freezer to freeze. After thinking about it for some time, I let it out of the freezer and put it immediately into a small black leather bag. We call it the Mental-Health Bag. The more you massage the bag, the more it smells,  the better you feel, and the more powerful and tranquilizing its effect on the brain.” 1Herbs & Things.

A photo of a black leather bag holding a formula of Labdanum + other substances.

And I still have this fragrant Bag of Mental Health creeping around after 53 years.

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HISTORY ~ The Cistus plant has been known since ancient times and is described by Dioscorides, Herodotus, and Pliny. Dioscorides says, “Now, that which we call Ladanum, is made of this plant. For the Hee goats, & shee goates, feeding on the leaues hereof, doe manifestly beare away the fatnesse of them on their beards and on their thighs, because it is of a viscous nature, which taken off thence they straine, & hauing fashioned them into little balls, lay them vp in store.” 4

‘            In ancient times, labdanum gum was collected in Crete in two ways:”“Pliny says that the gum was harvested by combing the coats of goats that grazed in the cistus-covered hillsides, and later it was collected by thrashing the branches of the cistus plants with a leather strap and then scraping that strap with a knife. Cistus’’ glutinous properties made these forms of harvesting possible. Today, most cistus production takes place in Spain, where the leafy branches are collected using a sickle before being processed” ”2  But this may be where its history of being ‘‘leather scented’ comes from.’            In ancient times, labdanum gum was collected in Crete in two ways: “Pliny says that the gum was harvested by combing the coats of goats that grazed in the cistus-covered hillsides, and later it was collected by thrashing the branches of the cistus plants with a leather strap and then scraping that strap with a knife. Cistus’ glutinous properties made these forms of harvesting possible. Today, most cistus production takes place in Spain, where the leafy branches are collected using a sickle before being processed.”2  But this may be where its history of being ‘leather scented’ comes from.

““In ancient Egypt, the false goat-hair beards of the pharaohs were impregnated with Labdanum to surround these men with an impressive aura of distinction. The Cypriotes mixed Labdanum with Styrax and Calamus oil, creating an early masterpiece of perfumery. When they conquered the island, the Crusaders became so enthusiastic about the fragrance that they brought the recipe to the rest of Europe. Known as the’‘Chypre’-theme, it is still employed in modern perfumery.”“In ancient Egypt, the false goat-hair beards of the pharaohs were impregnated with Labdanum to surround these men with an impressive aura of distinction. The Cypriotes mixed Labdanum with Styrax and Calamus oil, creating an early masterpiece of perfumery. When they conquered the island, the Crusaders became so enthusiastic about the fragrance that they brought the recipe to the rest of Europe. Known as the ‘Chypre’-theme, it is still employed in modern perfumery.”

            Cistus creticus has a subspecies, C. incanus, and is thought to be the ‘myrrh’ of Genesis. Both resins are obtained by boiling twigs and skimming the resin from the water’s surface. —Mabberly.

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Jeanne Rose collection  of Cistus and Labdanum from 1972 to the present of 2023

Jeanne Rose collection of Cistus & Labdanum from 1972 to the present

NATURAL PERFUMERY

CISTUS AND LABDANUM are used in Natural Perfumery. Cistus E.O. is considerably easier to use than the resinous  Labdanum. Try substituting it for Elemi, Rosemary, Myrrh, or any other sharp-scented essential oil harvested in the Mediterranean area, such as Lavender or Myrtle.

            BLENDING ~ Various types of essential oil are produced by the steam-distillation of the leaves and twigs. They are usually called Cistus E.O. Cistus blends best with  Labdanum abs, citrus oils such as Bergamot, floral oils, rich deep Oakmoss, and base earthy oils such as Vetivert.

Labdanum, the concrete is alcohol extracted to obtain the absolute, a semi-solid soft and sticky green-colored substance. It must be diluted in (grape spirits) alcohol to be used. The scent is balsam, herbal and spicy resin, warm and rich. Works well with citrus, Lavender bases, green and conifer scents. Labdanum 50•50  is Labdanum diluted 50% with neutral spirits.

BLENDING

Galbanum & Labdanum/Cistus Base Accord

  1. Dilute Galbanum and Labdanum individually 50•50 with neutral grape spirits.

2. Let the above age and meld for a week.

3. Take 12 drops of Galbanum (50•50) and 12 drops of (50•50) Labdanum, add 12 drops of Cistus and mix them together. Age it for 1 week. Smell and experience.

4.   After it ages, you can add an equal amount of grape spirits to make a 25% pure scent base. Give it a name that you will remember.

A CHYPRE PERFUME

A Simple Chypre Perfume is made as follows: Mix together 5 drops of Bergamot + 5 drops White Grapefruit + 5 drops of Clary Sage with sclareol + 5 drops of Cistus, mix this together using succession, and as a bridge, add  1 drop of Oakmoss dissolved in several drops of alcohol; for your heart note add  5 drops of Patchouli + 2 drops of Rose + 1 drop of Neroli, mix this using succussion; and then add the base note of 3 drops of Labdanum (pre-diluted in high-proof alcohol + 3 drops Atlas Cedarwood.

            The total equals 30-35 drops. Succuss. Age this for at least 2 weeks (maybe more), then add 90 drops of 95% neutral grape spirits (alcohol) and age again for 3 weeks before you decide to do or not do anything else.

            Equals 4 ml of finished scent at 25% perfume ingredients by volume. This is one of my favorite perfumes and odors – but remember, start with the best quality ingredients to get the best scent in a perfume.

INTERESTING INFORMATION: The Ladanesterion or ladanesterion is a tool made of leather leads used to comb out the Labdanum from the Cistus plant. It was described by Pedanios Dioscorides in the 1st century A.C. It was also described by the French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort in his travel to Crete in 1700. The tool today has been replaced with plastic.

The ladanesterion comb, combing the Labdanum resin, and a rounded piece of gummy resin of Labdanum

KEY USE: The Oil of Perfumery

This work is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.

REFERENCES:

1Rose, Jeanne. Herbs & Things. Only available from jeannerose.net with coil binding.

2http://www.albertvieille.com/en/products/86-labdanum-resinoid-spain.html

3http://labdanum-creta.blogspot.com/2010/04/cistus-incanus-power-of-rock-rose-menu.html

4 Greek Herbal of Dioscorides. Hafner Publishing Company. 1933 from the great work of the first century A.D.

5 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10412905.2011.9700439

Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Elizabeth, NJ. 1960

Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Volume VI. Reprint 1972.

Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose .2015 edition. San Francisco, California

http://www.andalucia.com/environment/wildflowers/the-gum-cistus

Langenheim, Jean H. Plant Resins. Timber Press. 2003

Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.

Pliny. Plinie’s Natural History. My copy is dated 1601.

Poucher, William A. Perfumes and Cosmetics. Van Nostrand Company. 1923

Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999

Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. North Atlantic Books. 2000

Rose, Jeanne. Natural Botanical Perfumery. JeanneRose.com. 2002

Cautions  Using plants and their parts

Scent rising  up from a bottle

ROMAN CHAMOMILE

Roman Chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile, one of the nine or more blue essential oils from several botanical groups that, when distilled, produce a blue-colored oil. They are all anti-inflammatory and beneficial to skin health. This article discusses only Roman Chamomile.

PHOTO of Roman Chamomile plant and its essential oil
Roman Chamomile – plant & EO

ROMAN CHAMOMILE ~ History, Naming, Uses, Skincare

By Jeanne Rose

NAMING AND BACKGROUND of Roman Chamomile ~ two significant types of Chamomiles are used as herbal home remedies and for their essential oils: Chamaemelum nobile or Anthemis nobilis, also known as Roman or English chamomile, Matricaria chamomilla, also known as German or Hungarian chamomile, they are two of the most widely used medicinal herbs and essential oils worldwide.

_____FAMILY ~ These two close herbal relatives are different plants of the same plant family – Asteraceae [Compositae].

•Both have an aromatic scent and bear small, daisy-like blossoms about one inch in diameter. They have similar but different properties and different chemistry, but many herbalists use them interchangeably in herbal remedies. However, they have some distinct differences, as one is a perennial, while the other is an annual.

’            The one that is often most desired as a fragrant lawn substitute is the perennial double Chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile ‘Flore Pleno’. This is an old selection that has been in use for hundreds of years. It forms a low evergreen mat with ferny leaves and fluffy white flowers in early summer. The flowers can be dried and used for tea or mowed, dried, and used for fragrant potpourri.‘            The one most frequently desired as a fragrant lawn substitute is the perennial double Chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile ‘Flore Pleno.’ This is an old selection that has been in use for hundreds of years. It forms a low evergreen mat with ferny leaves and fluffy white flowers in early summer. The flowers can be dried and used for tea or mowed, dried, and used for fragrant potpourri.

photo of double Roman Chamomile - "flore pleno"
”double Roman Chamomile “flore pleno”

COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN for Roman Chamomile ~ The essential oil is most often obtained from  Italy. At the same time, the herb is grown throughout Europe and in many other areas, including South America and the USA.

ENDANGERED ~ Roman Chamomile is of the least concern. Wikipedia says, “Chamaemelum nobile is listed as least concern, but the plant population in the UK is decreasing significantly by drainage of wet grasslands, decrease in grazing, and the reduction of pasture that was used as arable fields” .15

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF PLANT HABITAT AND GROWTH ~ Chamaemelum nobile is a perennial, “has daisy-like white flowers and procumbent stems; the leaves are alternate, bipinnate, finely dissected, and downy to glabrous. The solitary, terminal flowerheads, rising 20–30 cm (8–12 in) above the ground, consist of prominent yellow disk flowers and silver-white ray flowers. The flowering time in the Northern Hemisphere is June and July …. Although the plant is often confused with German chamChamomiletricaria chamomilla), its morphology, properties, and chemical composition are markedly different.” 15

PORTION OF PLANT USED IN EXTRACTION AND YIELDS ~ The flowers are steam or hydrodistilled. The color of the essential oil is vital as one of the constituents of the essential oil contains an azulene named chamazulene and a component called bisabolol.  Bisabolol and chamazulene occur only in the morning and evening collections of the plant, and the plant must be distilled at this time.

_____YIELD ~ The yield of essential oil from Roman chamomile is greatly influenced by the method of drying the flowers. In Iran, the oil content of the shade-dried flowers was the most prominent (1.9% w/w) compared to sun-drying (0.4% w/w) and oven-drying at 40 °C (0.9% w/w).16

Elsewhere yield has been reported at 0.8% to 1.0%.

STORAGE ~ Store the essential oil in the freezer.

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ORGANOLEPTICS & CHEMISTRY ~ We call these Chamomile oils ‘blue oils’ because they are blue in color. Yes, essential oils have color. These colors include a pale sky blue such as freshly distilled Roman Chamomile, although it seems to quickly lose that color, and many darker blues as well.

The plant has no azulene, as it is produced during the distillation process. The EO molecule called azulene is a dark blue color. It is composed of two terpenoids; vetivazulene, a derivative of Vetivert, and guaiazulene (also called azulon), mainly from guaiac and chamomile oil. This molecule is also found in some pigments of mushrooms, plants like guaiac wood oil, and marine invertebrates such as jellyfish and corals. Azulenes, although usually shades of blue, can also be green, violet, blue/violet, and red/violet.  It is a brilliant rainbow of color due to its chemical structure. 12

Please Note ~ that the blue chamazulene itself does not occur in the plant but is formed from a sesquiterpene lactone called matricine during the steam distillation process.

”Roman chamomile EO is insoluble in glycerin ““Upon exposure to air and light and on prolonged standing, the light blue color of the oil changes first to green, to yellow, and later to yellow-brown.  This oil presents one of the highest ester values of all essential oils, from 272 to 293.5” World of Aromatherapy, p. 203. Esters are used in skincare.

SCENT SNAPSHOT

Odor Profile (snapshot) Roman Chamomile
Odor Profile (snapshot) Roman Chamomile

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GENERAL PROPERTIES of Roman Chamomile

a symbol for a 'smiling' drop of oil indicating its safety to use
No Worries

A symbol from The Aromatherapy Book by Jeanne Rose – EO can be freely used.

’The main property of any ‘’blue oils’ is as an anti-inflammatory, to control inflammation, usually of the skin, and on some occasions, when taken internally, to control inner inflammation. Shirley Price considered Roman Chamomile the best of all essential oils to use. The main property of any ‘blue oils’ is as an anti-inflammatory, to control inflammation, usually of the skin, and on some occasions, when taken internally, to control internal inflammation. Shirley Price considered Roman Chamomile the best of all essential oils to use.

PHYSICAL USES & HOW ROMAN CHAMOMILE IS USED (IG OR AP)

            APPLICATION ~   The blue oils with the component of azulene are anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antibacterial and are predominantly considered unusual plants and oil for skincare.

The Benefits of Azulene in Chamomile Essential Oil. The use of chamChamomileincreasing as the knowledge of azulene (chamazulene) grows. Azulene is significant in Matricaria chamomilla (Matricaria recutita), and this herb has surpassed even its cousin Roman Chamomile as the essential oil for skincare. Both are powerfully anti-inflammatory.

            SOME FORMULAS

•Rosacea is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition that affects the face. Rosacea causes facial redness and produces small, red, pus-filled pustules (bumps). Rosacea worsens with time if left untreated. Add Roman Chamomile in about 5% to any blend used for rosacea.

• Clay-Mask for Delicate, Inflamed Skin … http://jeanne-blog.com/clays-and-muds/

Make a paste of white clay and water (or flower water).  Add 1 drop of Chamaemelum nobile – Roman chamChamomilepply to clean face and let dry for up to 15 minutes.  Rinse off carefully and spray with hydrosol of Roman Chamomile, Lavender, or any other you might have.

’• Neuritis and neuralgia and a shingles remedy. – Formula of Essential Oils at 8% includes Helichrysum, Rosemary verbenone, Ravensara, and Roman Chamomile. Add 42% of the total in Calophyllum and Calendula infused oil for the balance of the formula at 50%. If possible, make this formula by weight, not volume. Shingles are very painful, a viral condition from old chicken pox stored in your body. I do not believe essential oils can ‘cure’ it, but they can help ease the pain. There is a long article on my website about this. See http://www.jeannerose.net/articles/shingles.html

• Neuritis and neuralgia and a Shingles remedy. – Formula of Essential Oils at 8% includes Helichrysum, Rosemary verbenone, Ravensara, and Roman Chamomile. Add 42% of the total in Calophyllum and Calendula infused oil for the balance of the formula at 50%. If possible, make this formula by weight, not volume. Shingles are very painful, a viral condition from old chicken pox stored in your body. I do not believe essential oils can ‘cure’ it, but they can help ease the pain. There is a long article on my website about this. See http://www.jeannerose.net/articles/shingles.html

         A Formula for neuritis. Get a 1-oz bottle, add 30 drops of Roman Chamomile, 20 drops of Rosemary verbenone, and 10 drops of Ravensara. Then fill with carrier oil. I prefer to use a cold-pressed Olive oil that has also been pressed with Lavender flowers [see Sciabica Olive Oil].  Shake vigorously and label and use at will.

INHALATION ~    Any blue oils have many uses in blends and are used via inhalation or in the blends used in inhalers. Roman Chamomile is most easily obtainable and can be used in an inhaler, salt inhaler, or mixed with Eucalyptus radiata and rubbed on the chest for inhalation, and used to relieve breathing.

DIFFUSE/DIFFUSION ~ Use these rare blue oils in moderation. If the herb works, use that first before the essential oil. They can be blended with just about any selection of oil to suit your purposes. I have a favorite at my desk of Eucalyptus smithii + Chamaemelum nobile in a small bottle that I use to inhale periodically when I am working at the computer.

EMOTIONAL/RITUAL/ENERGETIC USES ~ Inhalation of Roman Chamomile may help with nervous tics, asthma, insomnia, headache, depression, and nervousness. It is very useful for hysteria, anger, and child tantrums.

” Many sources list a litany of magical and spiritual traditions for the  Roman Chamomile. These sources list its use in spells for peace, love, tranquility, and purification. Teddy Fearnhamm, an aromatherapy teacher, says,““a cascade of Roman Chamomile and you immediately feel loved.” In ritual, it is used to instill stillness, become spiritually aware, give inner peace, and become emotionally stable. These are all attributes we can use.“ Many sources list a litany of magical and spiritual traditions for the  Roman Chamomile. These sources list its use in spells for peace, love, tranquility, and purification. Teddy Fearnhamm, an aromatherapy teacher, says, “a cascade of Roman Chamomile and you immediately feel loved.” In ritual, it is used to instill stillness, become spiritually aware, give inner peace, and become emotionally stable. These are all attributes we can use.

A MINOR CHAMOMILE TOMATO TALE

            Years ago, when my boy was about 8 years old, we were all gathered together around the dining room table, friends and family, having a glass of wine and chatting. I live in the city and up two flights of stairs from the street. The boys, my son, and his friend were on their BMX bikes, riding up and down the length of the 15-foot hall and creating a tremendous cacophony. It was very noisy. I quietly got up, put some Roman Chamomile into a diffuser, aimed the nozzle towards the hall, and diffused this essential oil into the atmosphere. It was only minutes before the noise died off, and quiet reigned in the house. Too quiet, actually. I got up and went into the bedroom, and now the boys were having a great time smoothing Vaseline into their hair and trying to get it to stand up in greasy peaks for that fashionable punk look. My son was laughing and enjoying the mess. Getting that Vaseline out of the hair is another story.

Roman Chamomile essential oil showing its pale yellow color
Roman Chamomile essential oil

BLENDING ~ Chamomile oils can be blended with just about any herb or citrus or wood, or resin. It works well with flowers, bark, and spices. Arctander states that Roman Chamomile is used as a trace additive [and] imparts a warm yet fresh note and a natural depth that is difficult to obtain by other means.

             Roman Chamomile has little chamazulene and thus has gentler anti-inflammatory properties. It also has a higher alcohol content than its cousin, German Chamomile is the better choice for skin conditions and other topical applications. It is used for skin diseases, acne, chilblains (painfully inflamed skin patches from the cold), and all skin irritations; applied as a compress for menstrual problems, neuritis (pins and needles in the limbs), neuralgia (sharp nerve pain), surgical intervention and pain relief, and used in perfumery. I have used it in massage blends for relaxation. Rub a bit on the gums for teething pain.

HERBAL USES OF ROMAN CHAMOMILE flowers ~ Roman chamomile flower tea is anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, a bitter tonic tea, carminative tea, digestive tea, emmenagogue tea (lightly promotes menstrual flow), nervine, and it is calming and stomachic. Roman chamomile oil is used as a tea for its internal and external properties, as an antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory, and to relieve gastrointestinal issues.

 Flowers and essential oil are used in skincare formulas as an anti-inflammatory. The EO is inhaled for asthma, used orally, and is best for all uses.

Please Note ~ that the blue chamazulene itself does not occur in the plant but is formed from a sesquiterpene lactone called matricine during the steam distillation process.

So, don’t expect to make herbal remedies with plants that produce blue oils and have a blue-colored product. These plants should be freshly picked in the morning and carefully distilled from the flowering tops, and the hydrosol is immediately frozen (to preserve the light blue color). The essential oil is collected and stored in the freezer to preserve it from oxidation.

KEY USE ~ Use Roman Chamomile and any of the other Blue Oils to relieve inflammation and inhale to relieve asthma.

HYDROSOL ~   Any hydrosols obtained while distilling plants will be acidic in nature and skin-loving for you. In particular, Roman Chamomile produces quite effective hydrosols. The EO is only blue if the plants are picked in the morning ‘when the dew is dry but the sun not yet high‘, and if mature flowers rather than leaves are picked. The hydrosol waters are anti-inflammatory and can be added to any lotion or cream. If you add them when the blue is still in the waters, the essential oil has not quite settled. These products need to be refrigerated.

            Roman Chamomile ~ I adore Roman Chamomile hydrosol. I use it in the bath, as a facial toner, and to spray my sheets for sleeping. Ann Harman found that in testing Roman Chamomile hydrosol, there was 0.0042% of EO in it. The hydrosol comprised 61 components, mainly sorbic acid, trans-pinocarveol, and lesser amounts of ketones, acids, and other components.

single Roman Chamomile flowers & EO
single Roman Chamomile flowers & EO

INTERESTING/SCIENCE/HISTORICAL USES ~ Historically, the Noble Chamomile called the Roman Chamomile, is often a double flower. It was grown interspersed with lawn plants as a ground cover that provided fragrance when being walked upon. Wet laundry, especially sheets, was laid down to dry on this fragrant cover plant, and while drying, they would pick up the sweet apple scent of the plants. In the past, when I could grow large amounts of this plant, I could place my clean, washed cashmere sweaters out to dry, and they would come back to me with the calming scent of chamomile.

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This work is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals

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A CHART OF ALL THE BLUE OILS AND HOW THEY ARE USED

            The blue color is the sesquiterpene AZULENE. All essential oils containing azulene are anti-inflammatory as a property both by inhalation and by application and occur in EO only, not in the plant (matricine).

            **Oxidation changes the chemical composition of the essential oil.  If any of these oils are greenish-black or brown when they should be light blue to deep blue, it indicates oxidation, age, and the existence of free radicals, and they should not be used for therapy.  Furthermore, if the clear-to-yellow oils appear deep yellow to deep brown, they, too, have oxidized and are too old to use therapeutically. 

A chart of most of the blue oils and correct scientific names, common names, symbol  of use, color, scent, chemical component and how used.
© This table is copyrighted 2005  and may not be used without the express permission of  Jeanne Rose Aromatherapy •

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NOTES TO TEXT & BIBLIOGRAPHY

”1. Parsons, Pamela.“Chamomile”. The Aromatic““Thymes“. (Spring 1994) 2:2.“1. Parsons, Pamela. “Chamomile”. The Aromatic “Thymes“. (Spring 1994) 2:2.

2. Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. (Elizabeth, NJ: Steffen Arctander, 1960.)

3. Franchomme, P. and Penoel, Docteur D. L’Aromatherapie Exactement. (Limoges, France: Roger Jollois Editeur, 1990.)

4. Guenther, Ernest, Ph.D. The Essential Oils.  (Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Company 1976.) (original edition 1952.) (in VI volumes)

5. Parry, Ernest J. Parry’s Cyclopedia of Perfumery. Philadelphia, PA: P. Blakiston’s Son & Co., 1925.) (in II volumes)

6. Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  (Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 3rd edition, 1994.) Available from http://www.JeanneRose.net/books.html

7. Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. (San Francisco, CA: Jeanne Rose Aromatherapy, 3rd edition, 1994.) Available from http://www.JeanneRose.net/books.html

8. Tutin, Heywood, Burges, Moore, Valentine, Walters and Webb, Editors.  Flora Europaea, Vol. 4. (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1976.)

9. Mabberley, D.J. The Plant Book. (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, corrected reprint, 1989.)

”10. Lewis, Walter H.“”Notes on Economic Plants.” Economic Botany. 46(4) pp. 426-430. (1992.)“10. Lewis, Walter H. “Notes on Economic Plants.” Economic Botany. 46(4) pp. 426-430. (1992.)

11. Bailey, L.H., staff of. Hortus Third. (Cornell, New York: Hortorium, Cornell University, 1977.)

12. http://www.aromaticplantproject.com/articles_archive/azulene_chamomile.html

”13. The Blue Oils. By Jeanne Rose. Published in““The Aromatic Plant Project” from archives •1994“13. The Blue Oils. By Jeanne Rose. Published in “The Aromatic Plant Project” from archives •1994

14. http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/Plant

15. Wikipedia. Chamaemelum nobile

16. R. Omidbaigi, F. Sefidkon, F. Kazemi. Influence of drying methods on the essential oil content and composition of Roman chamomile. Flavor and Fragrance Journal. 29 March 2004. https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1340

References:

Arctander, Steffen. . Perfume and Flavor Materials Chamomilel Origin. (Elizabeth, NJ: Steffen Arctander, 1960.)

Harman, Ann. Harvest to Hydrosol

Mabberley, D.J., Mabberley’s Plant Book, 2008 Third Edition with 2014 updates, Cambridge University Press

Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.

Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations.

Rose, Jeanne. Hydrosols & Aromatic Waters. www.jeannerose.net/books.html

Worwood, Susan & Valerie Ann. Aromatherapy.

Safety Precautions.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

Moderation in All Things.

Be moderate in using essential oils, as they are not sustainable for the environment.

Be selective and more moderate in your usage.

Use the herb first as tea or the infusion. —JeanneRose 2014

scroll symbol signifies end of article

BRUISE JUICE

BRUISE JUICE ~ How To Make It …

By Jeanne Rose

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photo by Jeanne Rose of Bruise Juice on a background of Comfrey leaves
photo by Jeanne Rose of Bruise Juice on a background of Comfrey leaves

The Secrets of this Famous HEALING OIL Decoded

HISTORY OF BRUISE JUICE

In 1969 I was trying to figure out how to cure my paralyzed right shoulder and arm after having a particularly awful automobile accident when I drove my car into Deetjen’s restaurant in Big Sur rather than driving it off the cliff. One historical herbal information source was the nearby U.C. Medical School library. There I found a most fascinating book, “Receipts in Physick and Chirurgery,” by Sir Kenelm Digby, Knt, 1668. There was a recipe for a potent ointment that would heal an injury at a far distance. Well, that was certainly fascinating as it meant if you had an injury in New York, I could rub the same place on my own body while in San Francisco and heal your injury from 3000 miles away.

So, I set about collecting the ingredients and spent the next six months working on the formula. Since the receipt (recipe) itself was so old, the names of many of the herbs were a mystery, such as what in the heck was smallage? This is when I learned how to use the Oxford English Dictionary, a diachronic dictionary that defines the word and tells you the history of the word and where it was first used. The name smallage is simply an old name for Celery seed.

Also, the ointment was made with ‘herbs in season‘, that is, freshly picked botanicals, and put by in a large porcelain jar with oil (then it was the oil of Ben*) until you had all the ingredients together. This meant I had to start in spring and end at the beginning of the following spring. I solved this problem the first time I made ‘Bruise Juice’ by purchasing some dried herbs from Nature’s Herb Company in San Francisco, using some fresh herbs from my garden, and storing them in a large porcelain jar with Olive oil. The process and original formula are in my book, Herbs & Things, written in 1969 and published in 1972.

photo by Jeanne Rose of one season's choices of herbs for Bruise Juice
Midsummer 2020

* “The best oil is the oil of ben as it is a protection…, a security from every affliction. Anoint yourselves with it… blessings…be on them and use it.”  Ben oil is pressed from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera, known variously as the horseradish tree, ben oil tree, or drumstick tree. It has a long history in many cultures as a fragrant oil for healing and perfumery. The oil is characterized by unusually long shelf life and a mild but pleasant taste (it smells a bit fishy to me).  However, I have always used Olive oil in my Bruise Juice – it is local, organically grown, and works exceedingly well.

Olive fruit for oil and Moringa seeds

DIRECTIONS  … Do not hurry the process.
Get your ingredients together, and work evenly and slowly.
Be consistent to get the best possible product.
Develop your standard of excellence and stick to it.

If you do not invest any energy into making a product, you will get no healing from it.

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1) COLLECT ~ I always use at least 50 – 60 different parts of herbs, roots, barks, and spices in the Bruise Juice to combat any sort of physical problem. Do you have to use so many? Maybe not, but I am trying to follow this old formula as close as possible for the magic it contains. I have made Bruise Juice using just 5 plants, with all the parts; that would be 15-25 parts if the flowers and seeds were available with the root, stems, and leaves.

Bruise Juice can be used by everyone; It is great for all athletes; football, baseball, lacrosse, basketball, rugby, track-and-field, etc., and is used on all sports injuries as well as everyday aches and injuries.

For my  Bruise Juice, I pick plants in the morning before the sun is high, but the plants are dry (with no wet dew), and I always try to start work on a waxing moon, close to a full moon. I collect the plants, comminute them a bit, place them in a large porcelain and non-aluminum pot, and add enough virgin Olive oil to cover the herbs in the pot.

…(day 1-2)

the pot, the herbs, the olive oil
the pot, the herbs, the olive oil

2) COOK ~ When all plants are collected and in the pot, I turn the heat to medium and heat until the oil is on a low bubble, and the plants start to sweat their internal cellular water. I collect this condensate from the pot’s lid into a small separate jar or glass. I like to collect the condensate into a clean glass and drink it immediately for its healing qualities.  It is the first or virgin condensate from the plants.  Then I dry the inside of the pot’s lid with a cloth and cool the pot for several hours.
 …(day 2-3)

the pot, the cellular water of plants, condensing on the lid
the pot, the cellular water of plants, condensing

3) CONDENSATE MUST BE REMOVED INTACT ~ I heat gently and cool slowly (do not refrigerate) and remove the condensate each time, and heat and cool, and remove the condensate until no more condensate collects inside the lid. At this point, the herbs should feel crisp but not smell burnt and with no internal water as the herbs have condensed the healing into itself. If they smell burnt, they are, and you need to start over. I let the pot cool and then take it off the stove and let it cool enough to handle. [Heat low and slow]
…(day 2-5)

To remove condensate, lift the lid straight up off the pot without tilting it,
move lid away from the pot, and then turn it sideways to drip into your separate glass or jar.

4) STRAIN ~ through a sieve that has been lined with a transparent or thin piece of silk or a pantyhose (do not use cotton or linen), I let it drain until no more oil comes through (this can take 2-4 hours depending on the temperature of the room). [if you wish to add essential oils, this would be the time], add and mix, then on to stage 5. [Also if you want to use some of the Bruise Juice in salad dressing, do not add any essential oils]
…(day 4-5)

Jeanne Rose photo of paint strainer used and straining herbal bits from the product
paint strainer and straining herbal bits from the product

5) SETTLE ~ Pour into a half-gallon or gallon jar, let it settle a day or two, and then bottle on a waning moon. You can also add the essential oils at this point.
…(day 5-7)

Jeanne Rose photo of Bruise Juice in the large glass jar
Bruise Juice in the large glass jar

6) BOTTLE ~ When completely settled, the oil is clear and green, and any watery or clouded liquid is clearly showing at the bottom of the jar; it is time to bottle it up. A waning moon is good, a warm day is better, and a peaceful day is best. [your intent goes a long way when creating a healing oil or ointment]

the 8-oz. bottles are filled

7) LABEL.  And make sure you label everything totally and completely.

…(day 5-8)

Biodynamic BJ-2022
Biodynamic BJ-2022

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That is it!

Here are the extra notes you may wish to have regarding the plants to use, the essential oils to add, and the whys and wherefores.

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GENERAL CHART OF PERCENTAGES OF PLANTS

“Wherever you live, learn the plants around you.  Depend upon what grows locally. 

Plants have power,

and you can tap into this power by using them in this simple old remedy.

Use what you know.”

The plants that I use all grow in my backyard in San Francisco.
What do you grow in your area?

An idea of what percentage of each type of herb to use in your Bruise Juice.

Chart of what herbs to use and at what percentage.

Essential Oils per gallon • Each quart of Bruise Juice contains over 2.5% essential oil (about .8 oz by volume) and should contain all or some of these oils. Tea Tree essential oil by itself is not adequate. Use a simple blend.

Don’t get fancy and try to add everything that you have in your cupboard.

Plus
Plai/Teatree
– first aid in all its forms, mild, anti-bacterial, and first aid treatment
Litsea cubeba – anti-viral (in a combination — Tea Tree 9 parts • Litsea •1 part)
Palmarosa – anti-fungal and anti-yeast
Rosemary verbenone – anti-fungal (verbenone) and stimulating

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Bruise Juice is a well-known product developed by Jeanne Rose in 1969. It was written about & described in Herbs & Things, Jeanne Rose’s Herbal – see pages 204-206. Each season of the year, the Bruise Juice is made with the freshest herbs of the season – so Spring Bruise Juice will smell and react a bit different than Summer made or Fall made Bruise Juice. Apply with fingers, cotton ball, q-tip as massage, application, or rub. Rub it on gently or firmly, as often as necessary, at least several times per day. You can make it simple or use all or some of the herbs and herb parts you have. Here is one iteration of mine.

Summer 2008 — made a simple Bruise Juice with 7 of these herbs (15 parts) including

ANALGESICSage leaf and stem – analgesic = 20%
AROMATIC – Peppermint & Bergamot mint , leaves, stems – aromatic  & Lemon Balm tops, flowers, leaves, stems – antiviral = 10%
ASTRINGENT – Rose buds, leaf, stems – astringent & Witch Hazel leaves , stems – astringent, & Yarrow flowers, stems & leaves  – astringent & healing = 20%
EMOLLIENT –  Violet leaves, & Marshmallow flowers and leaves – healing = 20%
HEALING – Comfrey leaf & stem – emollient & healing & Rosemary leaves, stems = 20%

PLUS
Essential Oils of Plai, Lavender & Rosemary

A COLLAGE of plants from 2018
A collage of plants from 2018

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            Some of the herbs that I have used at various times are as follows: since this is a Seasonal product, the herbs used to depend on the season that we are making the Bruise Juice. Spring Bruise Juice is often green with leaves and early flowers; Summer Bruise Juice is flowers and lots of herb parts; Fall Bruise Juice is leaves and roots; Winter Bruise Juice is often conifers, seeds, and barks. Of course, stems are different than leaves, and both are different than the flowers or seeds of the same plant.  It is the chemistry of each that is different. Look up individual plants on my blog posts for their healing qualities, as many are listed there.

[see www.jeannerose-blog.com or http://www.jeanne-blog.com]

List of plants from a summer-made bruise juice with the alchemical symbol of healing at the bottom.
List of plants from a summer-made bruise juice with the alchemical symbol of healing at the bottom.
photo of a warrior son by a jeep
Bruise Juice Baby and warrior son, Bryan Moore.

Bruise Juice is always good to be applied to children’s injuries and even when those children grow up to be Warriors.

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101 Uses for Healing Bruise Juice – externally applied

A list of 101 uses for Bruise Juice
101 Uses for Bruise Juice

We have many users of the fabulous Bruise Juice with comments and here is one,

“I received the bottle of Bruise Juice. Thank you!! I have been using it by application religiously each morning & evening. It is a wonderful formulation. I love the scent! If you have that scent in a more concentrated formula as a fragrance application I would like to know. Warm regards … J”

In the early days, people used Bruise Juice as salad dressing (with no EO), but this is the first time that anyone wanted to use it as a scent!

“I gave blood on Saturday.  The tech person poked through the vein and it
immediately swelled bigger than my thumb.  When I got home, I put bruise
juice on it, liberally.  There was almost no bruising, and today I can
hardly see it at all.  The other arm they finally got the pint out of is
more bruised than the arm that swelled!  Good stuff!” — E.T.

Bruise Juice and Calendula oil - photo by Jeanne Rose
Bruise Juice and Calendula oil – photo by Jeanne Rose

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All rights reserved 2022. No part of this article may be used without prior permission from Jeanne Rose.

© Authors Copyright Jeanne Rose, info@jeannerose.net
 

Jeanne Rose has two blogs on the uses of herbs and essential oils.

Refer to them for more information.

www.jeannerose-blog.com

www.jeanne-blog.com

rosebud
Rosebud

JASMIN

The Jasmine, an ancient flower, is treasured and known throughout history for over 3000 years.  It is used today mainly for perfumery. Read on!

The Jasmin in my back yard.
Jeanne’s Jasmin

JASMINE Absolute and Uses

By Jeanne Rose

Can I say I love the  Jasmine as it produces blooms sometimes continually here in San Francisco, the most beautiful and treasured of flowers, so highly sought after for scent, emotional medicine, skincare, and love. Known as the ‘king of flowers”.

Jasmine COMMON NAME/LATIN BINOMIAL ~  Jasmine is the common name for the fragrant vine with white, highly fragrant flowers, and Jasminum is the genus. We will discuss three Jasmine species: J. grandiflorum,  J. officinale, and J. sambac.

Other Names and background ~ Jessamine, Yasmin, Jasmine, and more; my favorite is the Pikake of Hawaii, J. sambac. Pikake means “peacock” and was named by Crown Princess Kaiulani, the last princess of the sovereign Hawaiian monarchy because she loved both peacocks and this jasmine! Jasminum sambac,= Arabian jasmine = Hawaiian jasmine or pikake from the olive family (Oleaceae) and is originally a native of India. Pikake is known outside of Hawaii as Arabian or Indian jasmine. In the Philippines, where it is, the national flower is known as Sampaguita. In China, the flower is processed as the primary component for Jasmine tea.

Family ~ Oleaceae

Jasmine flower by Mary Nell Jackson of Jackson farms.
Jasmine flower – Mary Nell Jackson – Jackson Farms

COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN FOR Jasmine ABSOLUTE ~ India, Syria, Morocco, Iran, and more.

ENDANGERED ~ Some Jasmine varieties, types, and cultivars are rare. The genus itself is not endangered. There are about 200 species of this flower around the world, and it seems wherever it is, it is loved for its strong scent.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF Jasmin PLANT HABITAT AND GROWTH ~ An evergreen shrub, vine, or climbing bush that is fragile and grows up to 33 feet high, with dark green leaves and small, white, star-shaped flowers, which grow well on young shoots.   A cultivated ornamental, some species are naturalized in South America and invasive in SE USA, including Hawaii and New Zealand.

            Jasminum grandiflorum = Spanish Jasmine. It originated in the valleys of the lower Himalayas and was brought to Spain by the Moors. The Jasmine absolute is obtained by extraction and is one of perfumery’s most precious materials. It is produced mainly in Egypt (8000 freshly picked flowers to make 1 g of absolute).4

                  Jasminum officinale = common Jasmine or Poet’s Jasmine has a rich scent, is native to the Himalayas, probably originated in China, and is a robust and vigorous climber to 10-15 feet.

            Jasminum sambac = Arabian jasmine = Hawaiian jasmine or Pikake is a native of India. It is a fragrant-flowered shrub, 2–3 feet wide and up to 6 feet tall, used to make fragrant leis.

alchemical symbol of wax or sap

Jasmine ~ PORTION OF PLANT USED IN EXTRACTION AND YIELDS ~ Extraction is by solvent, enfleurage of the flowers, or CO2 with natural solvents.  “1,000 pounds of flowers yield approximately 1 pound of liquid concrète, which yields 0.2% of aromatic molecules.”  Picking and extraction is better and more productive in the morning, at 5 am, than 12 hours later at 5 pm. The Jasmines are grown for perfumery and some medicinal uses.

            • Two main types of Jasmine are used for oil production – Jasminum grandiflorum and Jasminum officinale. Jasmine flower oil extracted from these two species is used in high-grade perfumes and cosmetics, such as creams, oils, soaps, and shampoos.

Jasmine – there are many species and many kinds of the scent for perfume.

Jasmine CO2
Jasmine grandflorum – concrète and Absolute
Jasmine officinale – concrète and Absolute
Jasmine sambac – absolute and Enfleurage

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Jasmin grandiflorum plant and Prima Fleur Jasmine absolute.
Jasmin grandiflorum – plant & Prima Fleur Jasmine absolute
Organoleptics of 4 types of Jasmine scent.

SCENT DESCRIPTIONS of Jasmine ~

                  Jasmine is a classic example of a flower that continues to develop and emit its natural odor up to 24-36 hours after it has been picked; therefore, it is supremely suitable for the enfleurage technique of extracting the scent via maceration in warm fat.

Jasminum grandiflorum absolute is floral with subsidiary notes of fruity, green, woody, and back notes of sweet hay, leather, powder, oily, and honey. See the scent snapshot at the end of this article.

Jasminum sambac absolute is very complex because it has dozens of components.  It can be described as floral, with a green and woody subsidiary note and spicey and sometimes fruity back note. It is an intensely floral, rich, warm, and diffusive odor.  It doesn’t take much to make a lovely positive change in a perfume. Arabian Jasmine is cultivated, solvent-extracted from the flower. The odor-aroma is sweet and tenacious and captures the late evening odors.

Jasmin Limerick
I love the smelly Jasmin
It is not all like the Lavender Tasmin.
White and small
Climbs the wall
It can smell up a deep chasm.

History & Interesting Facts  ~ Because its scent is more pungent after sunset, Jasmine is called the “queen of the night” in India.  “The Hindu god of love, Kama, who, like the Greek Eros and the Roman Cupid, is represented with a bow, had arrows tipped with Jasmine blossoms to pierce the heart with desire. 

            “The Greek physician Dioscorides reported in the 1st century AD that the Persians used jasmine oil to perfume the air at their banquets.  Along with hyacinth and rose, they frequently appeared in Sufi poetry as a symbol of love and spiritual longing.  The plant’s name is derived from the Persian Yasmin, a common name for a girl”5.

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CHEMISTRY AND COMPONENTS ~ • Jasmine oil is most extracted via solvents and sometimes CO2, as well as a few other ways. “It is a prevalent fragrant oil that contains benzyl acetate, terpinol, jasmone, benzyl benzoate, linalool, several alcohols, and other compounds”4. It is not steam-distilled except in some instances by private persons experimenting with their stills.

photo of Jasminum officinale on the fence.
Jasminum officinale

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GENERAL PROPERTIES of Jasmine

The general properties of the Jasmine oil and extracts are relaxing and stimulating, antidepressant, slightly astringent, hypnotic, tonic, and the herb used in tea as a scent additive.

Properties of Jasmine are by IG=ingestion or IN=inhalation or AP=application ~. 

Inhalation –     Antidepressant, nervine, euphoric, aphrodisiac, relaxant, calmative, stimulant, sedative, and a sexual tonic.

Application –   Warming.  Antiseptic.  Antispasmodic.  Cicatrizing.  Urogenital restorative and decongestant.                                                                             

Physical Uses & How used (IG or AP) ~

Application –   Indispensable in perfumery.  Used in skin care for dry, greasy, sensitive, wrinkled, aging, mature, and irritated skin.  Massaged into the pelvis area, Jasmine relieves congestion or any menstrual problems.  It is thought to balance female hormones and regulate the menstrual cycle.  I have used it externally applied on the belly (to have an effect) as a uterine massage oil, and to prevent stretch marks.  It is somewhat antiseptic.

Inhalation –     Used to relieve labor pains and deter impotence and frigidity.

Emotional Uses (AP or IN) ~

Application –   To relieve headaches. Apply a dab around the temples.

Inhalation – To dispel depression, relieve nervous exhaustion and tension, and alleviate stress.  It makes one feel happy.  Aphrodisiac.  It is uplifting yet soothing and overcomes restlessness.

APPLICATIONS IN SKINCARE ~ Jasmine absolute is used for all skin, particularly dry or aging skin. Any blend you make and use on the face with Jasmin will reduce tension and stress in the skin and relax and smooth out wrinkles. Jasmine oil (any kind) can be used with Mandarin oil in a carrier – it is calming and soothing when inhaled and applied externally on the abdomen to prevent stretch marks, as well as in skin care products for smooth skin.

Tropical Skin Blend by Alexandra Avery

 1 oz. Kukui nut oil
 2 oz. Macadamia nut oil
 ½  oz. Aloe vera oil
 6 drops of Ylang essential oil
4 drops of Jasmine essential oil
 5 drops of Sandalwood essential oil

      Combine all ingredients and shake well.  Store in a glass perfume bottle and use over face and body while skin is still damp from bathing.

A small glass perfume bottle

recipe from a 350-year-old book

BLENDING FOR PURPOSE AND PERFUMERY ~ Jasmine absolute uniquely combines well with all floral items. It works well with woods, citrus, florals, spices, resins, and many exotic or amber-style perfumes. Add it to your synergy, drop by drop, until you achieve the scent you like.  Try a Millefeuille Perfume or Huit Fleur of all florals, such as Jasmine, Lavender, Neroli, Osmanthus, Rose, Rose geranium, Tuberose, Ylang-ylang with the green Violet leaf, and Atlas Cedar and Sandalwood as the base note.

Perfume by W. A. Poucher – 1923

Tuberose extract triple =148 cc
Orange flower extract triple = 50 cc
Cassie absolute = 0.1 cc
Ylang-ylang oil – Manila = 0.4 cc
Rose otto – Bulgarian = 1.5 cc
Jonquille extract triple = 300 cc
Jasmin extract triple = 500 cc

Use Jasmine grandiflorum concrète rather than absolute for solids…that little bit of jasmine wax adds to the scent, smoothes out the edges, and makes it more tenacious. A touch of Ylang and a little Blood Orange are also added. Use Labdanum and Tonka lightly as a base note to give depth and support the scent without intruding on the jasmine.

JASMINE Spring – 2017
Bergamot,   20
Green lemon or Grapefruit 5
Tuberose, 10
Bulgarian rose, 15
JASMINE sweet 5 (or more)
Iris (orris),  5
Violet leaf 5-10
Coffee – 5
75-100 drops of Grape spirits (95%)

[a personalized perfume made for Christine Suppes]

INHALATION AND DIFFUSION ~Are you feeling very stressed and overcome by the events of the day? Take out that bottle of Jasmine absolute, mix 10 drops Jasmine plus 10-20 drops carrier oil, and inhale as it is soothing and relaxing. 

RITUAL USE ~ Jasmine oil, either inhaled or applied to the forehead, relieves headache and stress; the oil has a history of positive use in rituals. There are many ways to use the ancient scent.

FLORAL WAXES

Jasmine WAX – The floral waxes are a great way to add floral scents to cold-processed soaps, candles, solid perfumes, and more. They are a by-product of the production of absolutes. The petals are put into a vat, and a solvent is added, which extracts the absolute. The solvent is evaporated, and alcohol is added to remove the next phase of the fragrance, a concrète – which has the softer scent of the original plant material. Finally, the alcohol is removed, and the plant waxes that are naturally contained in the petals and still holding some of their scents are left. The waxes fluctuate with every batch.

Jasmine wax photos and descriptions.
Jasmine wax

INGESTION/CULINARY USE OF THE HERB Jasmine. Jasminum is used to scent tea and some other foods.  It is generally not used itself as a tea, as it is the most prized scent of the tea.

• Crepe jasmine, Tabernaemontana divaricate is used medicinally because it contains a natural pain-killing chemical. “Chemists have synthesized a pain-relieving extract from the bark of this tropical shrub in the lab, paving the way for new drugs that lack the unwanted side effects of many opiate-based pain meds. A compound from crepe jasmine (above) that shows promise as a pain reliever has been synthesized in the lab, a feat that should kick off hard-core explorations of the compound’s drug potential.”… Despite its name, the plant isn’t closely related to scented jasmine. Instead, it comes from a plant family rich in alkaloids, compounds that are often poisonous but have been commandeered as medicine for treating malaria, cancer, and other maladies.3 [not a true Jasmine – here is where using a common name can be trouble]

• The nectar of the fragrant flowers of Carolina Jasmine, Gelsemium sempervirens, is poisonous, although its dried roots are used in medicinal preparations as a sedative. [not a true Jasmine]

HERBAL Jasmine~ There is almost nothing more relaxing than an herbal bath scented with real flowers.  Just pick the flowers and strew them in hot water. The heat extracts the fragrance, and the smoothing emollient quality of the petals is released to cleanse and soothe the skin.  Mixtures can include Rose petals, whole Jasmine flowers, chopped and muslin-bagged Comfrey and Marshmallow leaves, and/or others from the garden.

A spray of Jasmin flowers over an old wooden fence.

HYDROSOL OF Jasmine ~ Jasmine has the potential to improve any skincare product. If carefully, gently, and slowly hydro-distilled on low heat, it will keep some of its floral character plus green leaf volatiles (GLV) and can be added to any cream, lotion, tonic, moisturizer, bath, and more. It is always soothing. It can be used with Seaweed extract and other herbs for an AntiAging elixir. Try it. Read any of my (Jeanne Rose) books for many more uses.

Key Use ~ Perfumery and skincare. Oil of Scent©.

Safety Precautions ~ None known.


This work is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.

SCENT SNAPSHOTS

A scent snapshop of Jasminum grandiflorum absolute.
Jasminum grandiflorum

References

1.McGee, Harold. Nose Dive – A Field Guide to the World’s Smells. Penguin Press. 2020
2.Shaath Ph.D., Nadim A. Healing Civilizations, The search for Therapeutic Essential Oils & Nutrients. Cameron + Company, Petaluma, CA. 2017
3. Natural pain-killing chemical synthesized Making conolidine in the lab could further drug research, By Rachel Ehrenberg
4. http://www.bojensen.net/EssentialOilsEng/EssentialOils.htm
5. Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit, p. 84

Bibliography
Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. 1960
Copeland, Dawn. Essential Oil Profiles. 2005
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils, published by Krieger
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Piesse, Septimus. The Art of Perfumery. Lindsay & Blakiston. 1st edition. 1867
Poucher, W. A. Perfumes and Cosmetics. 1923
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California
Rose, Jeanne. Natural Botanical Perfumery Workbook.  Available at http://www.jeannerose.net/books.html
Rose, Jeanne. The Herbal Body Book. Frog, Ltd. Berkeley, CA. 2000

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Cautions
photo of perfume bottle, entitled "Rising Up"

WINTERGREEN ~ plant and oil

The bright red berries and green leaves have a distinctly pleasing wintergreen flavor.
Learn all about Wintergreen, description, extraction, and uses.

Close-up of Wintergreen leaves with new flower buds
Close-up of Wintergreen with new flower buds

WINTERGREEN Plant & Oil

Jeanne Rose – December 2021

Introduction For many, roaming the woods and eating Wintergreen berries is a memory from childhood. The bright red berries and leaves have a distinctly pleasing wintergreen flavor. This is a fine shade-loving ground cover that is native to the woodlands from Manitoba to the eastern United States. It has very attractive, glossy, evergreen rounded leaves (purple-tinted in winter) and delicate, waxy, white flowers which become the large edible fruit. This 6-inch creeper makes a perfect groundcover for woodland, edible, and rock gardens. The fruit is an important food source for pheasant, squirrels, and deer. It is one that is used medicinally as a poultice for aching joints.

Common and Scientific Name ~ The common names of Wintergreen, Checkerberry,  and Teaberry are for the plant known as Gaultheria procumbens. This plant is an aromatic plant of the heath family called Ericaceae.

Countries of Origin of the Plant and oil ~ I have seen essential oil of Wintergreen (G. procumbens or G. fragrantissima) from Nepal and China. G. procumbens is in the forest of Canada and the north of the United States. I have seen the analysis of these as well.

ENDANGERED ~ Wintergreen is native to Ontario Canada. It was first discovered and used by Native Americans; the leaves and berries produce the oil of wintergreen (methyl salicylate). And it is not endangered.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF WINTERGREEN HABITAT and GROWTH ~ Gaultheria procumbens has many short erect branches with short-stalked, thick, shining tooth-edged leaves in the upper part.  Flowers hang singly from the leaf axils and have a pale pink, waxy-looking, urn-shaped corolla.  The bright red berrylike fruits, sometimes called deer-berries, consist of the much-enlarged fleshy calyx, which surrounds the small many-seeded capsule.  The plant is a native of shady wood on sandy soil, particularly in the mountainous areas of the northern United States and southern Canada.”2

Close-up of glossy wintergreen leaves. Photo taken in December.
Close-up of Wintergreen leaves in December

                  This fragrant, evergreen ground cover makes a lovely addition to my urban garden. It is evergreen, a ground cover, and seems to be tolerant of most soil, sandy, dry, slightly alkaline, and drought tolerant.  It seems to prefer well-drained soil.  I plant it in the sun (about 6 hours/day), in the shade, and wherever I need it. I often add oyster shells around the base to add a bit of alkalinity and to highlight the green leaves.  The bright red berries last a long time, sometimes months. I still have a few berries on my plants from December 2020.

            Wintergreen leaf tea is harvested in Nepal and steam distilled. When bruised or cut, the foliage emits a strong wintergreen scent.  Small pinkish-white flowers appear in summer followed by scarlet red berries that are quite persistent.

LEAVES OF WINTERGREEN ARE USED IN EXTRACTION ~ “… the composition of wintergreen essential oil is very simple; its distillation is a bit more complex. First, the methyl salicylate is not free in the plant but bound to some sugar. This non-volatile glucidic complex named gaultherin must be hydrolyzed prior to distillation so that the methyl salicylate can be distilled. The leaves must be macerated in hot water prior to the distillation so that the plant enzymes can free the methyl salicylate. This macerate water is used in the hydrodistillation.                            Wintergreen essential oil is one of the rare oils that are denser than water and it doesn’t decant easily. The distillation of eastern teaberry requires a still with a special design (a separator for heavy oils and for better yields, the possibility to distill with cohobation).1

For more technical details on the distillation test, 2.7 kg of the plant (stems and leaves) have been harvested and macerated in water the night before distillation. [see the article for more information).1

            Wintergreen leaf tea is harvested in Nepal and the oil is made by steam processing of warmed, water-soaked wintergreen leaves. and then steam-distilled.

When bruised or cut, the foliage emits a strong wintergreen scent.  Small pinkish-white flowers appear in summer followed by scarlet red berries that are quite persistent.

ORGANOLEPTICS of Wintergreen ~ The scent of the essential oil is bright and fresh and should be used in dilution – never neat.

Two bottles of essential oil of Wintergreen, one red oil, and one colorless oil
Two bottles of essential oil of Wintergreen, one red oil, and one colorless oil

ORGANOLEPTICSWintergreen – redWintergreen – no color
Colorreddishcolorless
Clarityclearclear
ViscosityNon-viscousNon-viscous
Intensity86
TasteStrong & bitterStrong & bitter
OdorEponymous Wintergreen gum odor. green, fruity, herbaceousFruity, green, and Herbaceous

CHEMISTRY AND COMPONENTS ~ WINTERGREEN oil has a relatively simple composition. Methyl salicylate is the main compound found in this EO at a concentration higher than 98%. The remaining part of the oil generally contains low amounts of ethyl salicylate, linalool, α-pinene, and limonene. Regarding adulteration, it’s obvious that pure synthetic methyl salicylate can be sold as genuine wintergreen oil. This can be detected by the absence of minority molecules mentioned above or by the presence of synthetic by-products created during the manufacturing process of synthetic methyl salicylate.

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GENERAL PROPERTIES of Wintergreen Herb and EO

Wintergreen is an herb. It has a good taste and is used in teas for headaches and other types of pain, fever, gas, pain of arthritis, and other conditions. In foods, wintergreen fruit is consumed raw or cooked in jellies, syrups, and wine and is very tasty.            
          The leaves and oil are used to make medicine. In manufacturing, Wintergreen is used as a flavoring agent in food, candies, teas, root beer, and in pharmaceutical products. The E.O. is used for painful conditions including headache, arthritis, and menstrual cramps. It is also used for digestion problems including stomachache and gas (flatulence) and lung conditions including asthma.

APPLICATION AND SKINCARE ~ Wintergreen leaf tea is used as a compress for painful conditions including headache, arthritis, and menstrual cramps. The tea is also taken for digestion problems including stomachache and gas (flatulence), and lung conditions including asthma. Compresses of the herb leaf or blends that can include the essential oil are used for pain and swelling (inflammation).

            The scent of the essential oil is bright and fresh and should be used in dilution – never neat. The E.O. is used for painful conditions including headache, arthritis, and menstrual cramps.

INHALATION ~ Occasional use is okay.

DIFFUSION ~ Do Not diffuse this oil as it can be very irritating.

Thirty years ago, a friend was being cared for at home. In his last days, he had explosive diarrhea.  His family was only able to combat the odor by periodically diffusing Wintergreen into his area of the home. But this is not recommended for most situations as some are allergic to the scent.

BLENDING FOR PURPOSE ~ Be careful if you use Wintergreen in a blend for its scent.  It can be very irritating to some people.  Do not use this in a pain blend with a heating pad as the heat can drive the oil into the skin and cause a serious burn.

            Wintergreen added to Lavender can result in a blend that has the smell of a warm sea.  Try it at 1•100 and if that doesn’t do it, then add another drop of Wintergreen.

            Very small amounts added to various blends always add a sweet, happy, note to the oils it is mixed with.

EMOTIONAL & SYMBOLIC USE ~ Wintergreen has much symbolism attached to it.  These plants are considered calming and cooling and represent healing and protection. Some believe that when given as a gift they break any hex that surrounds the person getting the gift and that they attract love, luck, and money.  This is a great gift to be given to others as a potted plant for a shady, sunny spot on the porch or to be woven into a wreath. A sprig placed under a child’s pillow offers protection and a life of good fortune3

Two plants, one in the bud and one with the flowers fully developed.  Such a lovely plant.
Two plants, one in the bud and one with the flowers fully developed. Such a lovely plant.

CULINARY OR INGESTION ~ Wintergreen berries (Gaultheria procumbens) are a favorite January breath mint and trailside snack. One of the few fruits that is sweetest and freshest on a cold winter or early spring day, frozen wintergreen berries have “ the texture of sorbet “ and a classic wintergreen flavor. The red berries of this native species persistently cling to the plant and, like wild fox grapes, truly come into their own after the first frost. Prolonged, hard frost only invigorates the wintergreen flavor, reducing lingering bitterness and bringing out the cool, creamy texture of the red berry’s flesh. The fruit is at its finest freshly picked and eaten raw, but its flavor can be strong and only one or two berries is plenty to cleanse the palette. This is not a fruit that should be eaten by the handful; think of it as a garnish or palate cleanser.6

Wintergreen with berries. Plant obtained from Forest Farm http://www.forestfarm.com/
Wintergreen with berries. Plant obtained from Forest Farm http://www.forestfarm.com/

HERBAL USES OF WINTERGREEN AND BIRCH BARK ~ Compresses of the herb leaf or blends that include the essential oil are used for pain and swelling (inflammation). The leaves are used in baths, compresses, tonics, and many other ways.  “It will help external skin problems as a decoction application, but if you are sensitive to salicylates, it can also cause skin problems.4” Use in moderation.

HYDROSOL ~ I have never had the opportunity to use this hydrosol in any capacity.  I have had Birchbark hydrosol (same chemical component) and used small amounts as a foot bath for my aching feet.

KEY USE ~ Wintergreen Leaf and oil for Pain-Relief

A bottle of Prima Fleur essential oil of Wintergreen.
A bottle of Prima Fleur Wintergreen essential oil

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WINTERGREEN TOMATO TALE

Here is a story from 1988 regarding Wintergreen. These two oils  Birch and Wintergreen smell alike, contain methyl salicylate and may cause allergic reactions in sensitive persons, so it would be wise to check this before applying.

            Do not apply essential oils in a steam bath. Once while taking a steam bath, I made the mistake of applying a single drop of Wintergreen oil to the outside of my swimsuit.  The steam caused the oil to vaporize and met my skin, nose, and eyes.  Now even though I am not normally sensitive to this substance, the heat of the steam bath and the steam itself caused the oil to diffuse and vaporize, expanding incredibly, the skin above the suit line broke out into a bright red rash that burned and itched painfully.  I had to leave the steam room immediately and run cold water on my irritated skin for 10 minutes until the pain dulled and then went away.  I also applied vitamin E oil to heal the rash.

 So do be very careful when using essential oils; remember that they are highly concentrated substances that require only an infinitesimal amount to be effective.

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INTERESTING/SCIENCE/HISTORICAL ~ “…serious toxicity can result from exposure to small amounts of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate is widely available as a component in many over-the-counter brands of creams, ointments, lotions, liniments, and medicated oils intended for topical application to relieve musculoskeletal aches and pains. Among the most potent forms of methyl salicylate is oil of wintergreen (98% methyl salicylate). Other products with varying concentrations of methyl salicylate are ubiquitous throughout many parts of the world, including a number of products marketed as Asian herbal remedies.” ‑‑­­­­–– https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0736467906006366

POLLUTANT ~ Wintergreen oil is considered a pollutant to marine life and a hazard to wildlife.5

SOURCE OF WINTERBGREEN ~ plants@forestfarm.com

REFERENCES ~
1https://phytochemia.com/en/2018/07/03/about-canadian-wintergreen/
2 https://www.britannica.com/plant/wintergreen-plant
3 The Complete Language of Flowers. S. Therese Dietz. #401
4 Rose, Jeanne • The Herbal Body Book, page 131
5 Roses, Jeanne • 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols, p, 157
6 https://www.themushroomforager.com/blog/2017/1/17/wintergreen-the-hardy-wild-breath-mint

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This work was sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.

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Wintergreen oil cautions.
Some Cautions to Remember with Wintergreen

Moderation in All Things.
Be moderate in your use of essential oils as they are just not sustainable for the environment.
Be selective and more moderate in your usage.
Use the herb first as tea or the infusion. —JeanneRose 2014

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

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Wintergreen plant in a pot.
Wintergreen plant in a pot.

RAVINTSARA

Ravintsara

A Study in Identity Confusion and Confliction

By Jeanne Rose – Summer 2021

4 bottles of Ravintsara oil, in the author's possession.  Photo by JeanneRose
several bottles of ravintsara oil – photo by JeanneRose

Introduction ~ Ravintsara #163, Cinnamomum camphora, is organically grown and not to be confused with Ravensara. Ravensara (Ravensara aromatica) and Ravintsara (Cinnamomum camphora) are two essential oils distilled from 2 very different trees, often misnamed from two separate botanical family, as well as two different countries. The leaves and wood of the tree are used for different essential oils and often also have different names. It is imperative that all who use essential oils, and any company that sells them, begin to label these oils using both common and scientific name, as well as part of the plant used, and country of origin.

NAMING AND DESCRIPTION ARE CONFUSING.

Naming & Background ~ Cinnamomum camphora, the tree, has different oils with different names depending upon whether you are talking about leaves or wood and whether you are discussing the tree from Madagascar or elsewhere.  The leaves of the tree from Madagascar, CT cineole, are called Ravintsara and they are used in products as an application for fatigue, and postpartum infections. The essential oil from the leaves/stem, and bark has different therapeutic benefits. Often, it seems, when using the term C. camphora, camphor laurel, we are talking about the tree that grows in China and whose seeds have been studied as an anti-bacterial and whose wood is distilled and releases a solid, white, waxy substance called ‘camphor’.

Names and part and country as follows:

Cinnamomum camphora, CT cineole, leaves, Madagascar is Ravintsara oil

Cinnamomum camphora, CT linalool, leaves, China is Ho leaf oil.

Cinnamomum camphora, CT linalool, wood, China is Ho Wood oil

Cinnamomum camphora, CT linalool, wood and leaves, China is Shiu oil

Cinnamomum camphora, CT camphor, wood, China is called white camphor, yellow camphor, and other names.

Ravensara aromatica, CT methyl eugenol, leaves, Madagascar is Ravensara or Hazomanitra oil.

Ravensara aromatica, CT methyl chavicol, bark, Madagascar, is Anise wood oil aka Ravensara anisata.

Sometimes the leaves are picked with stems and when distilled, have that anise-scent of R. aromatica type anisata, bark, Madagascar is called Anise wood oil, and called Ravensara anisata. –– this from Material review 2005 [https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Hector-

Also, some scientific sources call this tree and another, Ravenala madagascariensis which is family Strelitziaceae, a palm-type tree. There is much confusion and Ravensara aromatica (the old name) is still confusing in the literature.  Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn. (Family STRELITZIACEAE), a palm tree whose leaves are used for asthma and the stem used for hypertension.

I remember these essential oils by scent and even that has changed over the years.

Family ~ Family Lauraceae – Cinnamomum camphora – Ravintsara. The essential oil of leaves, Cineole type, from the Madagascar tree is commercially known as ravintsara. The leaves are steam-distilled and depending upon terroir there are different chemical families represented.  The main ones are linalool and cineole. This tree with a common name of Camphor laurel has different names depending upon the six different chemical variants called chemotypes. These are camphor, linalool, 1,8-cineole, nerolidol, safrole, and borneol.

Countries of Origin ~ Ravintsara is a product of Madagascar.

Endangered – Probably, it depends upon to whom you are speaking and what plant and plant part they are discussing.  Even in the scientific literature, often the plant part being discussed is missing as evidenced from many articles in the literature as well as any book discussing essential oils.

  If you are using the leaves only of the R. aromatica, the tree itself is not endangered; however, if you are using the bark of this same tree [but called R. anisata], this tree is endangered.

General Description of Plant habitat and Growth and Confusion ~ I am unable to provide a proper description of the tree, only that at this writing this essential oil still causes confusion. Obtained from the leaves of a tree (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl), which was introduced from Taiwan as an ornamental tree and now grown widely in Madagascar and with increased demand from the international market. This essential oil has often been misreported and traded as ravensara, or Ravensara aromatica. The true ravensara (R. aromatica) essential oil is extracted from the leaves of an endemic species locally known as “havozo,’ or “hazomanitra, which means “aromatic tree” in the Malagasy language.”1

“Another source of confusion with Ravensara species is that R. aromatica and R. anisata (a synonym for R. aromatica) were considered different species producing different essential oils, whereas the plants were one and the same. Both essential oils come from the same plant, but the oil of R. anisata usually refers to the bark oil of R. aromatica (rich in methyl chavicol), while the essential oil of the true R. aromatica is extracted from the leaves. The species that was first described by Sonnerat was further renamed as R. anisata by Danguy.”2

PORTION OF PLANT USED IN EXTRACTION AND YIELDS ~ Ravintsara Essential Oil is steam distilled from leaves of Cinnamomum camphora CT cineole in Madagascar during the months of September through December.  The bark yields another product. Always carefully analyze the odor of the essential oil as there are certainly different grades and scents.  Wood, leaf, bark produce different essential oil by SD. See above.

Yield ~ I was unable to find the specific yield of essential oil of leaf of Cinnamomum camphora from Madagascar.

The chemical composition of R. aromatica bark is in all cases characterized by a high amount of methyl chavicol (83–98%), whatever the chemotype.

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A bottle of  Prima fleur Ravintasara oil showing the color or lack of and the clarity.
Ravintsara showing color/clarity

ORGANOLEPTICS ~ The organoleptic, physical, and chemical profiles of the essential oils of ravintsara (C. camphora) and ravensara (R. aromatica) oils showed that both essential oils can also easily be differentiated using chemical fingerprinting. It has been proposed that new standards for their botanical and essential oil authentication and species identification be written.

Ravintsara – Cinnamomum camphora CT cineole, leaves, Madagascar

Color – colorless
Clarity – clear
Viscosity non-viscous
Scent Intensity – 6
Taste – bitter and aromatic

Tenacity – very good
Description of scent – The leaf oil is herbaceous, woody, spicy, and green and more suitable to therapeutics than perfumery.
Aroma Description – Ravintsara has an odor much like Eucalyptus due to the same chemical component of Cineol. It is pleasant and refreshing, fruity, herbaceous, and spicy. Waft the scent enough times to remember it by its odor.

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GENERAL PROPERTIES of Ravintsara CT cineole

Properties of Ravintsara ~ This essential oil is considered anticatarrhal, decongestant, and expectorant. It is helpful and useful for rhinitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, and sinusitis (by inhalation).

BLENDING RAVINTSARA FOR PURPOSE ~ This robust and pleasant oil is best used in blends for the respiratory system and in massage blends, to refresh and uplift the body.  It blends well with herbaceous oils such as Rosemary and Marjoram, the citrus oils such as Lemon and Bergamot, and spicy oils. Included in this list are some resins and some grasses such as Frankincense and Palmarosa. Try very tiny amounts in perfumery to make the perfume sparkle.

>Formula for rhinitis ~ For perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR), the essential oils of Ravintsara, Geranium, (Pelargonium graveolens), Eucalyptus and Niaouli, used together, release their decongestant, tonic, and anti-infectious properties, and can be used in a base of saline solution and rosemary hydrosol, and provide great benefits in case of a blocked nose, (loss of sense of smell), and irritation of the ear, nose, throat (ENT) tract.3

Formula:

1 oz Rosemary hydrosol
+  1 oz double strength saline solution*
+ 3 drops Ravintsara (Cinnamomum camphora, CT cineole, leaves, Madagascar is Ravintsara oil
+ 1 drop each of (Frankincense or Rose Geranium), Niaouli, and Eucalyptus.
Place all in a 2 oz nasal spray bottle, shake vigorously to use.

            *[Double strength saline solution is made by bringing to a boil 1 cup of water covered for 15 minutes. Cool to room temperature. Add 1 t. salt and a pinch of baking soda. Stir until dissolved. Store in the refrigerator no more than 2-days.]

>Another formula for rhinitis is the inhalation of a combination of EO that include Sandalwood, Ravensara aromatica, and Frankincense.2

>Sore throat Formula ~ For the beginning of a sore throat, I have used Ravintsara, a drop on a sugar cube, to slowly dissolve in my mouth.  I have found this to be very helpful.

HERBAL ~ A tea of the leaves of Cinnamomum camphora in Madagascar is used for fatigue and post-partum infection.

Chemistry and Components ~ We have discussed this in the beginning.  It is important for the consumer to look at the GCMS; if you want Ravintsara it must be from Madagascar and have high levels of cineol, 50-70%.  The scent will help guide you.  I have seen a product called this name (from a well-known essential oil company) that had a high percentage of linalool and that is NOT Ravintsara but Ho Leaf oil.

Key Uses ~ Ravintsara is the oil of the Respiratory system. Just like the citrine in the opening photo, ravintsara is a powerful cleanser.

Ravintsara oil - different sized bottles
Ravintsara oil

References

  1. Searching for the Real Ravensara (Ravensara aromatica Sonn.) Essential Oil. Perfumer & Flavorist, vol. 30, Jan-Feb 2005
  2. “Effect of inhalation of aromatherapy oil on patients with perennial allergic rhinitis: a randomized controlled trial,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2016, Article ID 7896081, 7 pages, 2016.
  3.    Effect of the Use of Intranasal Spray of Essential Oils in Patients with Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Prospective Study https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32961531/

This examination of the latest information about the essential oil Ravintsara

was sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.

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Cautions to Remember chart
Cautions

Ravintsara exploration written by Jeanne Rose 2021

Moderation in All Things.

Be moderate in your use of essential oils as they are just not sustainable for the environment.

Be selective and more moderate in your usage.

Use the herb first as tea or the infusion. —JeanneRose 2014

Ravensara aromatica Sonnerat is a tree endemic to Madagascar. The essential oil extracted from the leaves is used in aromatherapy. Previous chemical studies have generated some confusion about the chemical composition of this essential oil. To eliminate this uncertainty, we undertook a systematic evaluation of the chemical composition of essential oils from leaves of this species. The study focused on 28 individual samples formally identified as R. aromatica. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC–MS. It was possible to distinguish four groups of trees through principal components analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis of the seven chief molecules identified in their essential oils. Two groups were characterized by a prevalence of compounds with an aromatic structure: methyl chavicol (representing more than 90% of the essential oil) in the first group and methyl eugenol (74–82%) in the second group. The predominant compounds of the other two groups proved to be of the monoterpene type: α-terpinene (25–28%) and limonene (15–22%) in the third group, while sabinene (25–34%), linalool (7–21%) and terpinen-4-ol (6–12%) were the primary constituents of the essential oils in the fourth group. The importance of these results for the commercial production of the essential oils from this species is discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Intraspecific chemical variability and highlighting of chemotypes of leaf essential oils from Ravensara aromatica Sonnerat, a tree endemic to Madagascar. By Hanitriniaina Sahondra AndrianoelisoaChantal MenutPhilippe Collas de ChatelperronJérôme SaraccoPanja RamanoelinaPascal Danthu

Arnica

Arnica CO2 & with Sunflower

a bottle of Arnica CO2
Arnica CO2 & with Sunflower

Introduction & Synopsis ~ Arnica is an introduced plant in the United States that was used in Europe as a painkiller, is now used in gels and products specifically to relieve aches and pains of overused joints and muscles.

Common Name/Latin binomial ~ Arnica, Arnica montana, or mountain tobacco or Leopard’s bane has many species (up to 34), subspecies, and varieties. Montana means ‘of the mountain’ and not from Montana.

Other Names and Background  ~ the common names listed above are also used for other plants, and in the case of Arnica spp., it is best to use this simple descriptor, Arnica, rather than any of the so-called common names that people often use.

Family ~ Asteraceae, Compositae, is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants. In terms of numbers of species, the Asteraceae are rivaled only by the Orchidaceae. herbaceous plants (Sunflower) , shrubs, and trees (such as Lachanodes arborea is one) distributed throughout the world. The plants are characterized by their composite flower heads and one-seeded achene fruits

Both Arnica and Sunflower are members of this family and includes lettuce, daisies, sunflowers, chrysanthemums, asters, marigolds, zinnias, asters, chamomile, chicory, sage, tarragon, ragweed, thistle, sagebrush, yarrow and much more.

photo of Arnica flowers and Sunflowers
bristly Arnica and blooming Sunflower

Arnica flowers and Sunflowers

History of the Plants ~ As early as the 16th century, Arnica was traditionally used in Europe as an anti-inflammatory for the treatment of aches and sprains.

Countries of Origin & Extraction  ~ Arnica is indigenous to north and central Europe and is now grown organically in several countries; the flowers are dried, and then solvent-extracted by supercritical fluid extraction with natural carbon dioxide. There are no solvent residues, no inorganic salts, no heavy metals, no reproducible microorganisms. This CO2 extract is standardized with organically grown sunflower oil to a constant content of 3.5 to 4.5% sesquiterpene lactones with a small amount of essential oil, waxes, resins, and sunflower oil.

            Some Arnica is gathered from the wild in Canada, but commercial production of the native and/or European species is also being fostered in several regions.

            Arnica cordifolia is found throughout the western United States, in high mountains and coniferous forests. This was  used by native Americans normally as an herbal mash or compress and applied to swellings and bruises.

General Description of Plant habitat and Growth ~ The Arnicas (genus Arnica) are relatively simple to identify. They are the only genus of yellow-rayed composites that regularly have opposite, simple leaves (not divided into leaflets) and hair-like (capillary) bristles topping the fruits. These features are easy to see without magnification.

Endangered ~ In 2020 an article in the PLOS ONE journal stated that “Populations of Arnica montana, a characteristic species of nutrient poor grasslands in Central Europe, have been deteriorating over the last decades, especially in lowland regions. Population size has been declining and signs of sexual reproduction are scarce. “Where once there had been large stable populations there is now small or none. The soil has become nutrient rich which diminishes the number of seedlings.”

Organoleptics ~ This product is a thick, viscous, brownish red paste with a mild pleasant scent that is slighty spicy, floral, and vegetative and is quite pleasant to smell.

General Properties of Arnica and Sunflower in Skin Care ~ Arnica is an anti-inflammatory and is used with Sunflower seed oil. This vegetable oil has many fine qualities; especially that it is light in texture, supremely adaptable for delicate skin care, it is inexpensive, it is locally grown, and usually grown without pesticides and fungicides as the flowers are high in the air and well-away from soil borne fungus or bugs, it is adapted to dry-farming and thus ecologically and earth friendly, and your skin will like it.

This is oil is healthy for the skin and healthy for the planet. It is a fine-quality oil, especially for normal to oily skin.  It is especially nice for aromatherapy uses because it has very little scent and is very light in texture on the skin.  

Blending for Purpose ~ Arnica CO2 can be dissolved in any vegetable oil or in cosmetic products as the Arnica extract acts to relieve muscle soreness and expedite healing of bruised and strained muscles.

Culinary/Internal Use ~ Not used. Arnica is not used internally, as it is poisonous and should not be taken internally or by mouth. Arnica contains the toxin helenalin which can be poisonous if large amounts of the plant are eaten; and it can cause  irritation of the mouth and throat, stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea, skin rashes, shortness of breath, a fast heartbeat, an increase in blood pressure, heart damage, organ failure, increased bleeding, coma, and death.

Maceration ~ When used externally it is good for bruising but for those with sensitive skin contact with the plant can also cause skin irritation. Instead of Arnica, use other organically grown plants that are anti-inflammatory. 

HERBAL USES ~ Topical arnica is promoted as a useful treatment for the inflammation and pain associated with bruises, aches, postsurgical bruising and swelling, and sprains. It is of traditional use in the treatment of sports injuries.
           Arnica patches placed at the very point of greatest pain eases the pain of fibromyalgia. Laura stated, “I used one on my shoulder and felt relief very quickly. After about 2 hours, I could feel ache returning and removed the patch. My skin had a slight red area where the patch had been. The redness was gone within the hour. I found the patch had little to no outward fragrance. It stayed on very well.”

          Oral homoeopathic arnica is used for the treatment of postsurgical bruising and swelling, for the relief of mouth and throat inflammation.             

Chemistry and Components ~ Arnica Flower CO2-to extract (organic), 4 % Sesquiterpene lactones. Flavex of Germany has a good summation of Arnica’s mechanism of Activity and the literature: “Mechanism of Activity. The sesquiterpene lactones with mainly esters of helenalin and 11 alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin are responsible for the anti-inflammatory and pharmacological activity. They not only inhibit the NF-kappa B activation, but also decrease the production of many inflammatory cytokines. This prevents the recruitment of immune cells, T- and B-cells, as well as macrophages and neutrophils and thus reduce inflammation. It has been shown that helenalin can inactivate previously activated NF-kappa B, a decisive factor for treatment of inflammation.”

Contraindications ~ Arnica is a bristly, deep-rooted plant with leathery lower leaves, and takes over the earth where it does not belong, injuring the animals that eat it by damaging the digestive system. Arnica has the ability to prevent clots from forming and thus should not be taken in herbal products or medication that thin blood such as aspirin, ginger, garlic, ginger and many different medications. Arnica is poisonous if taken internally; it poisons the animals that eat it and threatens pastureland where it is a widespread invader in the United States and should not be grown here.

Warning ~ Arnica is toxic, do not take internally.

Key Uses ~ Anti-inflammatory, improves blood-circulation when applied externally

References – PLOS ONE – May 29, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233709
The Healing Power of Plants. Virtual Museum.ca
Foster and Hobbs. Medicinal Plants and Herbs. Peterson Field Guides. 2002

Source ~ Many thanks to PrimaFleurBotanicals.com for the samples of Arnica and assistance.
Jeanne Rose Herbal Studies & Aromatherapy Studies Courseshttp://www.jeannerose.net

This work is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.

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SOME CAUTIONS TO REMEMBER FOR ALL PLANTS & THEIR PARTS

Precautions and Contraindications
Precautions & Contraindications

Moderation in All Things.
Be moderate in your use of essential oils as they are just not sustainable for the environment.
Be selective and more moderate in your usage.
Use the herb first as tea or the infusion. —JeanneRose 2014

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

small bottle of arnica in a porcelain dish
Arnica in a 100-year-old porcelain dish

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The Healing Oil

HEALING OIL — The Secrets of Famous Bruise Juice Decoded
By Jeanne Rose

photo of various bottles that contain either Brise Juice or Calendula infused joil
Bruise Juice & Calendula Oil by Jeanne Rose

History of Bruise Juice – During 1969 I was trying to figure out how to cure my paralyzed shoulder. One source for historical herbal information was the library at the U.C. Medical School. There I found a most fascinating book, “Receipts in Physick and Chirurgery,” by Sir Kenelm Digby, Knight, 1668. There was a recipe for a potent ointment that would heal at a far distance. Well, that was certainly fascinating as it meant if you had an injury in New York I could rub the same place on me while in San Francisco and heal your injury 3000 miles away. So I set about collecting the ingredients and spent the next six months working on the formula. Since the receipt itself was so old, the names of many of the herbs were a mystery: such as what in heck was smallage? It turns out the name smallage is simply an old name for Celery seed. So that was not a problem. Also, the ointment was made with ‘herbs in season’. that is, freshly picked botanicals. This meant that I had to start in spring and end at the next spring. I solved this problem by purchasing some dried herbs from Nature’s Herb Company in San Francisco and also using some fresh herbs. The process and original formula is in my book, Herbs & Things that was written in 1969 and published in 1972.

This book is still available as a spiral bound book and is still a wonderful source of information. Buy it by the month of September and receive a discount by saving shipping charges. The entire amount to send would be only $28.00 . www.jeannerose.net
Available book at website

I teach my students how to make both bruise Juice and a truly wonderful Calendula infused oil in my Herbal/Aromatic SPA class given in April of every year. Check out our classes and sign up, you too can learn to take care of yourself and your family with simple herbs and essential oils.

I always use at least 40 – 60 herbs, roots, barks and spices in the Bruise Juice to combat any sort of physical problem. Great for athletes; football, baseball, lacrosse, basketball, rugby and used on all sports injuries Bruise Juice, pick and start work on a waxing moon. Let it drain and bottle on a waning moon.

Chart showing a number of herbs that can be used in making Bruise Juice.
Neutral-Eliminator-Building Herbs for Healing

Essential Oils per gallon • Each quart of Bruise Juice contains over 2.5% essential oil and should contain all or some of these oils. Tea Tree essential oil by itself is not effective.
Plai/Teatree – first aid in all its forms, mild, anti-bacterial, and first aid treatment
Litsea cubeba – anti-viral (in a combination — Tea Tree 1 part • Litsea •9 parts)
Palmarosa – anti-fungal and anti-yeast
Rosemary verbenone – anti-fungal (verbenone) and stimulating

• 

           Some of the herbs that I have used are as follows – of course since this is a Seasonal product, the herbs used depend on the season that we are making the Bruise Juice. Spring Bruise Juice is often green, leaves and early flowers; Summer Bruise Juice is flowers and lots of herb parts; Fall Bruise Juice is leaves and roots; Winter Bruise Juice is often conifers, seeds and barks. We always use between 40-60 herbs, leaves, barks, roots, stems, and flowers in my Bruise Juice to honor its 400-year-old past.

Angelica archangelica – leaf & stem
Artemisia absinthium – Absinthe leaf
Artemisia arborescens – leaf & stem
Artemisia latiloba – leaf & stem
Artemisia vulgare – leaf & stem
Artichoke leaf – Cynara scolymus
Bougainvillea flowers & leaf
California Poppy flowers
California Fuchsia
Comfrey – flower, leaf & stem
Fennel Seed
Fern (Lady Fern) Athyrium filix-femina
Feverfew Tanacetum parthenium
Forget-Me-Not Myosotis sylvatica
Foxglove flowers
Giant Sequoia – Sequoiadendron giganteum
Iboza riparia – leaf & stem (anti-microbial)
Lemon Balm – leaf & stem
Marjoram & Yellow Marjoram – Origanum majorana
Marshmallow leaf & stem – Althea officinalis
Matilija Poppy Romneya coulteri – Fried egg flower
Mint leaf & steam of Bergamot mint, Wild mint

  Healing Symbol

Nasturtium Tropaeolum majus – flower, leaf & stem
Nicotiana alata Tobacco flower –
    flower, leaf & stem
Pelargonium graveolens – flower & stem
Pelargonium odoratissimum
(Apple & nutmeg) Peppermint leaf & stem
Potato Solanum tuberosum – leaf
Rose eglanteria leaf
Rosemary – leaf & stem
Salvia clevelandii
Pineapple Sage – leaf & stem
Sequoiadendron giganteum – leaf & bark
Spanish mint – leaf & stem
Spearmint – leaf & stem
Strawberry, wild
Violet leaf & stem & flowers
Wisteria flower – W. sinensis
Witch Hazel bark, stems, buds
Woodruff leaf
Yarrow flower & stem (Achillea millefolium)

photos of plants, 9 of the many herbs that are used in bruise juice.

Bruise Juice is a well-known product developed by Jeanne Rose in 1969. It was written about & described in Herbs & Things, Jeanne Rose’s Herbal – see pages 204-206. Each season of the year, the Bruise Juice is made with the freshest herbs of the season – so Spring Bruise Juice will smell and react a bit different than Summer made or Fall made Bruise Juice. Apply with fingers, cotton ball, t-tip as massage, application or rub. Rub it on gently or firmly, as often as necessary, at least several times per day.

Summer 2008 — made with herbs including
Comfrey leaf – emollient & healing
Yarrow flowers – astringent & healing
Lemon Balm tops – aromatic & antiviral
Mint & Bergamot mint – aromatic
Witch Hazel leaves – astringent
Marshmallow flowers and leaves – healing

BLM, the warrior,  with his combat vehicle.
Bruise Juice Warrior, Bryan Moore
Chart listing 101 Uses for the Healing Oil, also called "Bruise Juice".

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We have many users of the fabulous Bruise Juice with comments and here is one,

“I received the bottle of Bruise Juice. Thank you!! I have been using it by application religiously each morning & evening. It is a wonderful formulation. I love the scent! If you have that scent in a more concentrated formula as a fragrance application I would like to know. Warm regards … J” In the early days, people used this on salad as dressing, but this is the first time that anyone wanted to use it as a scent!

“I gave blood on Saturday.  The tech person poked through the vein and it immediately swelled bigger than my thumb.  When I got home, I put bruise juice on it, liberally.  There was almost no bruising, and today I can
hardly see it at all.  The other arm they finally got the pint out of is more bruised that the arm that swelled!  Good stuff!” — E.T.

 

Bruise Juice is always good applied on children’s injuries and even when those children grow up to be Warriors.

bottle of the healing oil called Bruise Juice
Healing Comfrey in the Bruise Juice


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Symbol for Healing

All rights reserved 2008, 2020. No part of this article may be used without prior permission from Jeanne Rose. © Authors Copyright Jeanne Rose, info@jeannerose.net