Yuzu is a citrus grown in Japan that is used for flavoring and fragrance.  The peel is strongly scented and makes a good addition to any blend and in perfumery. Very refreshing odor and taste.

YUZU for Scent and Savor

By Jeanne Rose

A photo of yuzu fruit and the oil distilled from the peel.
Yuzu fruit and oil

NAME ~ YUZU Citrus x junos ((Citrus ichangensis × C. reticulata, formerly C. junos Siebold ex. Tanaka) Yuzu fruit It is like a Grapefruit.

OTHER NAMES ~ It is called Yuja in Korean cuisine

Family ~ Rutaceae

Countries of Origins ~ Yuzu is believed to have originated in China and grows wild in central China and is well-known in Japan and now grown elsewhere.

General description of Plant habitat and growth ~ Yuzu is believed to be a hybrid of sour mandarin and ichang papeda. The fruit looks like a small rougher-skinned grapefruit (much smaller) with its uneven skin and can be either yellow or green depending on the degree of ripeness. Yuzu fruits, which are very aromatic, typically range between 2+ and 3+ inches in diameter but can be as large as a grapefruit. Yuzu is an acidic citrus from China that is grown as rootstock for other citrus varieties & for its fruit. Fruits are acidic and moderately juicy with pleasant citrus aroma and can be used as a lemon substitute. It is unusual among citrus plants in being relatively frost-hardy, due to its cold-hardy C. ichangensis ancestry, and can be grown in regions with winters at least as low as -9 °C (15 °F) where more sensitive citrus would perish. Harvest fruit when ripe, October through December.

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields ~ Yuzu peel is both steam-distilled, solvent extracted for the absolute, and cold-pressed. The oil is traditionally extracted from the peel using the cold press technique and contains limonene (up to 77.0%) as a major constituent. However, the steam-distilled oil has no phototoxicity.

            Yield ~ The overall mean yield is 0.18%.

Picture of various bottles of Yuzu oil and also showing different colors of the oil.
Various bottles of Yuzu oil – Yuzu collection, photo by Jeanne Rose

Organoleptic Characteristics of Yuzu

Color – colorless to pale yellow for the steam-distilled
Clarity – clear
Viscosity – non-viscous
Intensity of odor – 4-5

Taste – sour, umami, citrus

Tenacity –like other citrus and the unique tenacity lasts more than an hour after application.

Odor Assessment – Yuzu has a fine citrus odor, with fruity and floral subsidiary notes. Refrigerate this oil to keep it fresh smelling.

Yuzu fruit
Yuzu fruit


Yuzu has radical-scavenging effects, antioxidant properties and is used in aromatherapy for its fine strong citrus scent.

Application/ Skincare ~ The peel is strongly scented and makes a good addition to blends and in perfumery. The scent is very refreshing. www.PrimaFleur.com. Yuzu in a blend treats the roughness of skin and warms the body.

Diffuse/Diffusion ~ It works well in many sorts of blends as it is invigorating and uplifting emotionally, some use Yuzu energetically as a mood-lifter.

CHEMICAL COMPONENTS of Yuzu ~ “Limonene was the most abundant monoterpene hydrocarbon followed by γ-terpinene and β-phellandrene in Yuzu. The volatile components of yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) cold-pressed oil were analyzed by capillary GC and GC–MS, without prior separation, and compared with those of lemon (Citrus limon Burm. f., cv. Lisbon) grown in Japan. p-Mentha-1,4,8-triene, was newly found among the seventy-seven components identified in the yuzu oil.”1

BLENDS BEST WITH ~ Peel is a good addition to blends when you need astringency and in perfumery for its strong citrus scent. Use as a top note with Bergamot and Lemon.

EO and hydrosol of Yuzu

HYDROSOL of Yuzu is a wonderful fragrant and slightly astringent toner/tonic for skincare.  Save it for your facial care and use orange hydrosol for body care. The fragrance is refreshing and relaxing while it adds its astringency to the water.

HERBAL USES ~ YUZU fruit known for its characteristically strong aroma, and the oil from its skin is marketed as a fragrance. In Japan, bathing with yuzu on Tojio, the Winter solstice, is a custom that dates to at least the early 18th century. Whole yuzu fruits are floated in the hot water of the bath, sometimes enclosed in a cloth bag, releasing their aroma. The fruit may also be cut in half, allowing the citrus juice to mingle with the bathwater. The yuzu bath, known commonly as yuzuyu, but also as yuzuburo, is said to guard against colds, treat the roughness of skin, warm the body, and relax the mind. When Yuzu is in season, use it in your bath – 4-5 sliced in half.

CULINARY USE ~ Fruits are acidic and moderately juicy with pleasant citrus aroma and can be used as a lemon substitute. Citrus junos Tanaka (yuzu) has a strong characteristic aroma, and hence, yuzu juice is used in several Japanese foods. It stays tart and sour if cooked with foods. I keep a bottle of Yuzu Essence in my fridge and use a few drops in sauces for the floral scent, the pleasant tartness and to add umami flavor to my food. Yuzu essence is “extracted on-site after the fruit is hand-harvested from wild stock that grows in the Aki region of Koichi prefecture.”2

Historical Uses ~ Ritual use at the winter Solstice.

Key Use ~ Oil of Relaxing Calm


References ~

1.Volatile components of Japanese yuzu and lemon oils. S.M. Nijoroge, etc., July/August 1994.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.2730090404
2.  www.juapangoldusa.com

Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992

This work is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.


The herbaceous Rosemary oils, have great healing value in skin-and haircare treatments, in a diffuser blend to cleanse the room air and enliven the senses. They are often stimulating, uplifting, and potent. You can use Rosemary oil and the herb as part of a Massage oil, Bath oil, or Skin conditioner.

6 bottles of rosemary oil nestled in a large branch of Rosemary herb
Rosemary herb, essential oil, and CO2 extract

ROSEMARY – plant & Oil Uses

By Jeanne Rose

Introduction ~ Science is an interesting subject and because it is a living study, it often changes, and those changes can be challenging to understand.  In the case of Rosemary, it is the name change that occurred in 2017 that will shake you up.

Common Name/NEW Scientific binomial ~ Salvia rosmarinus (was known as Rosmarinus officinalis) and due to studies done, and DNA analyzed, since 2017 it is a part of the sage genus.

            FAMILY ~ Lamiaceae

Other Names and background ~ The species name, rosmarinus, comes from the Latin words ros (dew) and marinus (sea), or dew of the sea, in probable reference to the ability of this plant to thrive well in coastal areas (sea cliffs) and exposure to ocean mists. 

Countries of Rosemary Origin ~ Salvia rosmarinus (Rosmarinus officinalis) is produced in various countries: the CT camphor is produced in Spain and Croatia; CT verbenone is produced in California, and France; CT cineole is produced in Morocco/US/France.

Endangered ~ Not threatened. This is an introduced plant to the United States and grows well in many areas.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ROSEMARY HABITAT, GROWTH, USES ~ “Rosemary is a perennial evergreen herb that is irregularly mounded and is valued for its fragrant, ornamental foliage and as an enhancement in cooking. It blooms from fall to spring. Key ID elements are the aromatic linear leaves which are green on top and whitish underneath, and also the axillary flowers.”1 It grows well in full sun where it often produces camphor, and it grows well in cool damp sunny areas where it will produce the cineol or verbenone type.

Showing 2 varieties of Rosemary, the large bush type and the smaller type called prostratus
2 varieties of Rosemary, the usual type
and the prostrate type

PORTION OF Rosemary USED IN DISTILLATION, AND YIELDS ~ The leaves, tops, and flowers are harvested, and steam distilled, and CO2 extracted. “Comminuting the pinene type of Rosemary will cause the bioconversion of alpha-pinene to verbenone. [Some plants need to be distilled fresh, some have to be dried, some semi-dried first, some need to be comminuted, that is, cut into smaller pieces, some need to soak for some hours before distillation. Each plant has different distillation parameter requirements.”2

The Yield: The yield can vary from .4 to .7% but is usually in the range of 1.0-2.0%.                      



Showing the chart of the rosemary oils, the description of color, clarity, viscosity, taste, intensity, and tenacity of 5 different oils.

ROSEMARY Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment /Chemistry ~

Chemistry and Components ~ CT verbenone is a favorite with its Rosemary scent with a hint of fruitiness, CT camphor that has the scent of mothballs and is used for the application to pimples, and CT cineol that smells quite herbaceous is the most often used for applications. All Rosemary is very eponymous in its scent with herbaceous, and woody notes.

showing the color differences of 3 chemotypes of Rosemary oil.

§ • §


Rosemary has three main chemotypes and the CO2. CT verbenone is a favorite in skincare and children’s products, CT camphor for application to pimples, and CT cineol in most other applications for pain or aches.

         The camphor type is a vein decongestant, mucolytic, tonic, and possibly diuretic. This type is used for external applications for acne or skincare. Camphor chemotype is produced where it is hot. The camphor type has neuromuscular action that is variable depending on the dose.  It is a venous decongestant by external application and powerful mucolytic by inhalation. We use it in massage blends for muscle cramps, joint pain, all around aches and pains.

         The cineol type is most often used for Respiratory applications, specific for ear and sinus problems, and general external applications for healing. Inhale and apply.

         The verbenone type is used for skincare, for oily or to regenerate the condition of the skin, and in products for delicate or sensitive skin. Inhale and apply.

CO2 Rosemary type. This CO2 extract acts as an antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. It is standardized in Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) seed oil. Rosemary Antioxidant CO2 Extract finds application in formulating creams, lotions, salves, balms and water-free products.

APPLICATION/Skincare ~ Rosemary has three main chemotypes. CT verbenone is a favorite for skincare, haircare and children’s products, with its Rosemary scent hint of fruitiness, CT camphor for application to pimples, and CT cineol in most other applications.

Rosemary has several health-boosting benefits aside from boosting prospective memory, it can be used in massage for pain relief, in bathing as it has antiseptic, antioxidant and astringent and anti-aging properties. Rosemary helps with dry and mature skin to produce more natural oils of its own. Rosemary can also help in getting rid of canker sores.

It is helpful to people who are losing hair and have problems with dandruff as it seems to stimulate hair growth and have less dandruff. Historically, Rosemary has been used to stimulate hair growth. There is one well-known study of 84 people with alopecia areata (a disease in which hair falls out, generally in patches), who massaged their scalps with a combination of Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica) Lavender (high elevation), Rosemary (unknown chemotype) and Thyme every day for 7 months experienced significant hair regrowth compared to those who massaged their scalps without the essential oils. But the study was not well designed, and it is impossible to say whether Rosemary caused the hair growth, or it was the combination of oils.

I have made my own shampoo using Rosemary herb (make a standard herbal infusion) as the base with other herbs, calling it “Dark Hair Shampoo” and have been using it and other shampoos that I enhanced with Rosemary herb and sometimes Rosemary oil and 50 years later at 84 my hair is still dark. I give all the credit to Rosemary.

[Herb Infusion: 1 qt. water to a boil, remove from heat, add 1 oz fresh or 1/2 oz dried herb, infuse 20 minutes, then strain. Use the dark liquid as part of your shampoo and herbal rinse.] You can also sip the infusion as an anti-inflammatory and anti-aging substance.


Diffusion with Rosemary ~ This is a wonderful oil to diffuse, it is spirited, clean-smelling, vibrant, and its effects are stimulating, uplifting and cleansing.  It works in all sorts of blends, particularly herbaceous types and to give sparkling energy to blends with conifers.

Emotional & Energetic ~ Rosemary is feminine in its strength and …” seems to me the wiser, stronger sister of the Lamiaceae family. [Other members are Lavender, Sage and Melissa] Rosemary has spunk and spirit. It is the one to turn to when you feel weak and some stimulation or a strong arm to help you up; it is an oil to remember in the depths of the Canadian winter!” unknown author


BLENDING FOR A PURPOSE ~ Define your purpose and then choose the Rosemary type that best fits the purpose. In certain perfumery odors, you will probably choose the verbenone type, while in massage you will choose the cineol type. Rosemary mixes well with all citrus and citrus scents, resins, Mediterranean herbal scents almost everything except heavy florals.  It is used in Cologne, some fern scents, conifer and forest blends and fresh summer odors.  Keep the camphor type for therapeutic uses.

Showing another picture of Rosemary with the herb
varieties of Rosemary
(Salvia rosmarinus CT pinene and CT cineol)

Culinary ~ The herb used in all sorts of foods; it is delicious, aids health, is anti-aging, and helps in the production of bile.

HERBAL USE OF ROSEMARY ~ Use this herb in your cooking, in your bath, as part of your shampoo for hair growth, in the rinse waters.  Mix herb Rosemary and Lavender together and put in a silk bag and throw into the dryer with clothes to give a clean and fresh scent. Read my book, The Herbal Body Book, for dozens of formulas for the hair, the skin, and the home. The best use is to bathe and shampoo with herbs. Absolutely my favorite is to use herb Rosemary is mixed with Comfrey or Lemon balm and used in the bath as a bath herb (at least a full ounce by weight of the herb(s).

Hydrosol ~ This should be picked and distilled in full flower or just before full flower. At this time the hydrosol will be sweet while later it may be camphoraceous.  This hydrosol is stimulating both by external application and internal use.  This is the rejuvenating and ‘holding back old age’ hydrosol. It can be taken a teaspoon at a time in a glass of water as a tonic drink, bathed in, used in shampoo or skin care; in other words, submerse yourself in Rosemary herb tea, Rosemary herb and hydrosol baths, and Rosemary essential oil inhalations.  The herbal extract and essential oil (and why not the hydrosol) show some powerful uses in diminishing the effects of Alzheimer’s. It is stimulating and when distilled averages 5.5 pH ± .1 …

HYDROSOL — PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

a bottle of colorless Rosemary hydrosol and the bush it came from.
Salvia rosmarinus

HISTORY & INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT ROSEMARY ~ French folklore says that combing the hair once a day with a rosemary wood comb would prevent giddiness and modern folklore says use Rosemary in shampoo and hair rinse helps hair to grow.  We also know that it is antioxidant and an anti-aging addition both to the diet and to skincare products.

“For you there’s rosemary and rue; these keep seeming and savour all the winter long: Grace and remembrance be to you….” — W. Shakespeare, The Winter’s Tale

Key Use ~ The Herb of Remembrance and the Oil of Anti-Aging and Stimulation

This work is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.


  1. https://plants.ces.ncsu.edu/plants/salvia-rosmarinus/
  2. http://jeanne-blog.com/rosemary-chemotypes-and-hydrosol/

Books as Reference

Coombs, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press. 1995
Guenther, Ernest. The Essential Oils. Krieger Publishing. Florida. 1976
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose. San Francisco California, 1992
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations. San Francisco, California.
Rose, Jeanne. Herbs & Things. Last Gasp Press (ask them to republish it)


Some cautions to remember with herbs and essential oils.

Moderation in All Things.
Be moderate in your use of essential oils as they are just not sustainable for the environment.
Be selective and more moderate in your usage.
Use the herb first as tea or the infusion. —JeanneRose 2014

Always Look at the color of the essential oils

Another photos of the Rosemary oils and herb.
Beautiful rosemary

Orange & Blood Orange oil

The warm sparkling bright citrus oils, including the ORANGE & Blood Orange, have great value in diffuser blends to cleanse the room air and refresh the senses. They are often very calming, soothing, and relaxing. You can use Orange oil as part of a Massage oil, Bath oil, or Skin conditioner.


By Jeanne Rose

Photo of cold-pressed oils of Orange and Blood orange with some fruits and a art nouveau paperweight.
photo by Jeanne Rose of PrimaFleur oils of Orange and Blood Orange


ORANGE Introduction ~ The citrus is so beautiful and so healthful for eating, and — is just delicious. The cold-pressed oil has a serious sweetness and bright happiness that makes it super in blends for mental health.

SCIENTIFIC NAME OF THE ORANGE ~ Oranges have had many scientific names in the past, but Citrus x aurantium is now the standard. Citrus taxonomy is often inconsistent and confusing because there are only five pure original Citrus genus, and there are dozens maybe hundreds of varieties and combinations of these five.

______Family ~ Rutaceae

Countries of Origins ~ Big juicy Oranges and blood Oranges are no longer known in the wild, it is surmised that they originated in China.

Endangered or Not ~ Orange plant and most of its varieties are not considered endangered in any way; however, the wild Orange plant of India is considered endangered because of its very specific growing and habitat needs.

Navel oranges - photo by Jeanne Rose
Navel oranges at the Farmer’s Market

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ORANGE PLANT HABITAT AND GROWTH ~ This is a small, evergreen tree that can be propagated by seeds, but the seeds will probably not grow true to form; or propagate by grafting on a suitable rootstock. It has large dark green leaves; white flowers, and the fruit has a sweet pulp that is deliciously juicy. The orange is a hybrid between a pomelo (Citrus maxima) and a Mandarin (Citrus reticulata).

Portion of plant used in distillation, and yields: Citrus peel is either steam-distilled or cold-pressed for Orange oil. The peel is also Solvent extracted for the absolute.

            Yield ~ Orange peel oil yields up to 0.5% by cold pressing.

a chart with the organoleptic characteristics of Orange Peel and Blood Orange oil
Sensory aspects of Orange Peel and Blood Orange

Orange Odor Description/ Aroma Assessment ~ Blood Orange has a rich scent brimming with citrus, and a subsidiary note of fruit, and green and herbal back notes; the scent is deeper and the flavor more intense and fruitier like berries because of the content of red anthocyanins.  Sweet orange is the same with orange carotenoid pigments and less scent and less intense on all levels.

            Language is important in recognizing smells.  An important part of perfumery training is to develop in common an odor language based on olfactory standards.  The possession of such an odor language increases the powers of discrimination. If you can name it, you own it.


CHEMICAL COMPONENTS of Orange Scent ~ Varieties of citrus are often based on scent chemistry especially the component limonene which has a chiral difference — both a left-turning molecule, (S) for sinistral with the sour smell of Lemon or Bitter Orange,  and a right-turning molecule, for right hand or clockwise or dextral, the sweet smell of Oranges. This is the reason we all as lovers of essential oils and aromatherapy need to learn some chemistry along with good taxonomy.

            “(+)-limonene or D-limonene (dextral) is the main constituent of this oil.  The aldehyde content of Sweet Orange oil is the measure of the oil.  The preferred Valencia oil possesses up to 3% aldehydes. One of which is decadienal with an extremely high aroma value.   Other constituents that contribute to the character and quality of Orange oil are the sinensals. X-sinensal has a high orange aroma scent and low odor threshold while b-sinensal has a metallic-fishy note that can be very objectionable.

            The difference between Orange and Grapefruit oil can be as simple as the amount of (+)-valencene. When the amount of a-terpineol exceeds normal level, off-notes occur.  This terpineol forms during the aging or oxidation of orange juice.  (Some essential oil of Orange is indeed produced from Orange Juice). The acetates contribute to the floral notes of Orange oil.”1


Shows the color of orange oil and blood orange oil with the fruit.
Beautiful Orange oil and fruit



The essential oil of Orange is antiseptic, taking the peel as a tea is antispasmodic and slightly diuretic,
both oil and peel are purifying, stomachic; when inhaled in a blend or massage the oil can be calming and sedating; and in skin care or by external application it has antiseptic properties.

_______Application/ Skincare of Orange oil ~ When using Orange oil or any citrus oil in skincare products, never apply directly and always use with a carrier oil or in a blend in the product. Orange is an antioxidant protecting the skin from damage, free radicals, and excess pigmentation and it is an antiseptic.  This can be a useful addition in a skincare product besides the lovely odor.

_______Diffuse/Diffusion ~ The citrus especially the Orange and Blood Orange are wonderful in perfumes, blends, massage oils and they are particularly useful in all types of room sprays or in diffusion. It is a calming, sedative, tonic, and purifying scent. These two oils are a happy, cheerful scent.  Here is one formula.

Orange/Blood Orange Floral Herbal Scent
2 parts each of Orange and Blood Orange
+ 1 part each of Ylang complete and Rosemary verbenone.
Mix together and succuss thoroughly.
Inhale as needed to uplift the emotions and ease tension.

         Emotional & Energetic Uses the Orange oil ~ The oil can be used by inhalation and is most often recommended for obsessions, or to stimulate the appetite, and to improve your self-image by boosting self-confidence. The oil is also added to blends in massage to also boost these feeling.


BLENDS AND PERFUMERY WITH ORANGE ~ “Citrus oils are used in the perfumery business to impart a fresh, sparkling note to any blend.  They are usually not overpowering.  They can be used in up to 25% as the base for classic type of eau de cologne.  Citrus oils harmonize with a large number of other essential oils and they are used in different concentrations in almost all scent blends and modern perfumes”.1

Perfume formula called Citrus Nectar
Nectar for the Gods, reminiscent of delirious perfume prepared by men of the cloth for generations

All essential oils can be purchased from PrimaFleur Botanicals.

BLENDS BEST with most other scents including all other citrus, herbal scents, Mediterranean scents (Lavender, Rosemary, Marjoram, etc.), florals, and resins. Orange oil is much used in blends and perfumery as the scent is so pleasing; Blood Orange has more intensity, fruitiness, and tenacity that sweet Orange.

Classic Type of Eau De Cologne

The company 4711 has the Original Eau de Cologne formula. “It consists of seven main ingredients which have relied upon since 1792: Lemon, Orange, Bergamot, Lavender, Rosemary, Petitgrain and Neroli. Is it a traditional product? Of course! Is it monotonous? Never! Splash it, spray it, do whatever you want with it, it’s yours. Take a deep breath for a moment of freshness, relaxation and calm.” – from 4711 website.

old formula for eau de cologne
Formula for Eau de Cologne


 HYDROSOL ~ A well-distilled hydrosol from either citrus flowers, citrus peel, or whole citrus can be obtained.  The hydrosol of bitter Orange flowers is specifically called Neroli.  All these Citrus hydrosols are easily used – in baths, in facial masks, as toners or in many products and they all have positive benefits for the skin, especially for dry or dehydrated skin.  Neroli hydrosol is popular in cooking and in cocktails but be aware that it does not seem to keep very well, oxidizes, and often molds easily.

            PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

Blood Oranges at the market
Blood Orange – photo by JeanneRose

HERBAL USES OF ORANGE PEEL ~ The peel of the Orange has many uses. It can be sliced from the Orange, dried, and added to bath herb mixtures where it acts as an antiseptic aromatic.  If you powder the dried herb peel you can mix it with clay or powdered Almonds and use in your facial mask for dry and oily skin.  This peel can be simmered for a few minutes in water and the water used in herbal shampoos for oily scalp or dandruff and it can also be added to vinegar rinses for these same conditions. Orange flowers are dried and used in potpourris or mashed up with other facial herbs and used to condition the skin.

HISTORY & INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT THE ORANGE: “By the 1500, Spanish colonists spread Oranges in the New World, now called the Americas and soon, Oranges were grown on an island off Sao Paulo in Brazil. Ponce de Leon is alleged to have brought the first orange trees to Florida, in the early 1500s.2”The Orange is the most cultivated fruit tree in the world.

            The oil is used for flavoring food, drink, and confectionery, Curacao type liqueurs, and for flavoring cigarette paper. 

Key Use ~ The Oil of Refreshment (for antiseptic and digestive problems).



1. Ohloff, Günther:  SCENT AND FRAGRANCES: Springer-Verlag. 1990. Translated by Pickenhagen and Lawrence

2. Wikipedia

Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin, 1960
Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Rose, Jeanne. The Herbal Body Book.
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992

This work is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.


Safety Precautions chart

Contraindications ~ Some citrus when handled and especially Bergamot and Lime oil cold pressed will cause photosensitivity when used undiluted or if you are exposed to sun directly after application. These citruses contain furanocoumarins, (natural chemicals found in some essential oils). Be wary. Keep total amounts of these under 2% of the total of your blend or perfume.  Lime peel oil or any citrus steam-distilled does not have the plant components that cause photosensitivity.


Juniper berry oil

JUNIPER plant & Essential Oil Profile

Juniper Berry benefits and uses. This oil come from the female seed cone that produces Juniper “berries”; Juniperus communis L. Juniper berries are used to flavor gin and liqueurs and eaten with meat; there is a French form has rather sweeter (fruitier) berries that I prefer to use to flavor drinks. Berries are diuretic and the oil or CO2 is wonderful in many blends as an anti-inflammatory, to ease pain of aching joints.

By Jeanne Rose ~ May 2021

3 Juniper berry oil, showing colors and types.
3 types of Juniper berry oil

Common  & Scientific Name ~  Juniper tree or Juniper berry oil comes from the berries of  Juniperus communis. Do not confuse this tree and its oil from other trees that have ‘juniper’ in the name.

Other Common Name/Naming Information – There are other trees in this family that are called Juniper but here we are limiting the discussion to Juniperus communis and not to the pencil-cedar called either ‘cedar’ or Juniper, or the Juniper tree that produces Cade oil. 

See a longer article at http://jeanne-blog.com/juniper-berry-eohydrosol/

_____Family ~ Cupressaceae

Countries of Origins ~ This tree is limited to cool, temperate climates such as areas in India and Bulgaria. Varieties of J. communis and different berry-bearing species also grow on the west coast of the United States and are used in the production of local gin.

Endangered or Not ~ This tree is threatened or endangered in several areas. I have found this species in the local San Francisco Botanical Garden.

General description of Plant habitat and growth of Juniperus communis ~ This conifer belongs to the Cupressaceae family and the leaves are stiff and prickly, needle-like. It grows up to 18-feet but is generally kept pruned closer to the ground for the berries. 1st year berries are green and have a fresh bright flavor and are usually allowed to mature another year when they turn brown to black before they are harvested to steam-distill or to be carbon-dioxide extracted for a flavorant. 

Portion of plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods and yields: ~ Steam-distilled or COfrom the merged scales of the cone, the berries, are the that we usually just call Juniper oil. Entire branchlets are harvested for hydro-distillation for hydrosol use.

Yield ~ The 2nd year berries are harvested in the fall and 100 kilos yield 1 kilo of SD essential oil.  0.2 – 2.0% for berry oil.

2nd year black Juniper berries and a trees branch showing 1st year pale blue berries.
Juniper berries and the tree branch

Organoleptic qualities of essential oil and extract of Juniper berrry, showing the color, clarity, viscosity, intensity of scent and tenacity in a blend.

• Odor Description/
Aroma Assessment ~ The steam-distilled essential oil from Bulgaria has a rather intense herbaceous odor with back notes of spicy, wood, and fruit while the CO2 example had a soft spicy, floral, and fruity odor – quite different and would obviously behave differently in a blend when contained other odors. The CO2 most closely resembles the scent of the berry.


GENERAL PROPERTIES of Juniper Berry oil

Properties and Uses ~ Juniper berries can be eaten or taken as a tea; the essential oil and CO2 extract can be used by inhalation and application.

           Juniper berries are a crucial component of gin. The 1st year berries have a much different taste than the mature 2nd year berries.

The properties are antiseptic, diuretic, tonic, and depurative (purifying). The essence by Inhalation is a tonic, brain tonic, and helpful in respiratory complaints as an expectorant. The essence used in blends by application or massage is antiseptic, astringent, skin cleansing for oily skin.

            When I travel, especially by air or even by train, I like to eat a berry or two to alleviate jet lag or for change-of-location.

Application/Skincare ~ Juniper berry oil is a valuable addition to skin and body care products due to its astringent and antiseptic qualities and is a wonderful addition in an astringent cleanser for the skin. It is a wonderful odor and deodorizer in men’s products.

Diffuse/Diffusion ~ Juniper berry oil can be diffused in a blend with other oils that are less intense in scent, such as Rosemary, Lavender, citrus oils. It has a very cleansing effect on the air, and is refreshing

Emotional/Energetic Use: Inhale Juniper berry oil for mental exhaustion, or to visualize being guarded from negative thinking and guard from danger. Be Positive.

A branchlet of Juniper with the berries and the three oils next to it.

Blends Best with most citrus oils, other wood oils such as Atlas Cedar, the Mediterranean herbs such as Clary Sage, Lavender, Rosemary, and the base oils such as Oakmoss, Labdanum, Vetivert and Patchouli.

Green Harmony – An Herbal Perfume
Cedrus atlantica (wd) 3 drops
Citrus aurantium ssp bergamia (pl) 6 drops
Juniperus communis (berr) 3 drops
Ocimum basilicum (lvs) 1 drop
Salvia sclarea (lvs) 5

Sports Blend – Aching Muscles and Joints
5 drops Sage EO
5 drops Basil EO
5 drops Cypress EO (Cupressus sempervirens)
5 drops Juniper Berry EO
5 drops Lemon EO
5 drops Rosemary EO
2 oz carrier oil, especially recommended is Bruise Juice
Vigorously massage aching areas as often as needed 


General All Over Massage Oil for Pain ~ To one ounce of carrier oil, add 3-4 drops each of Rose Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), Juniper berry (Juniperus communis) and Lemon (Citrus limon).

Blending with formula One of my favorite blends is Juniper Berry mixed with Sage, Cypress, Lemon, Basil for the relief of all sports injuries, bruising, aching muscles, and external massage for cellulite and relaxing after exercise.

Chemical Components ~ Alpha-Pinene, Sabinene, Myrcene, Camphene, and Terpineol.

HYDROSOL of Juniper berry ~ A refreshing addition to your skincare routine, especially for troubled, acneic, or oil skin and hair.

________PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.

Historical Uses ~ “Common juniper was used by Native Americans of the Great Basin as a blood tonic. Native Americans from the Pacific Northwest used tonics made from the branches to treat colds, flu, arthritis, muscle aches, and kidney problems. Cones were used by the southern Kwakiutl of British Columbia for treating stomach ailments and wood or bark was used to treat respiratory problems. The Interior Salish used cones to make medicines for a variety of ailments. Eurasians made tonics from common juniper for kidney and stomach ailments, and for muscular uses and rheumatism.”1

Key Use ~ The Oil of Edema from Aromatherapy – Home&Family2



  1.  http://jeanne-blog.com/juniper-berry-eohydrosol/
  2. Aromatherapy – Home & Family course

Mabberley, D. J. Mabberley’s Plant-Book, 3rd edition, 2014 printing, Cambridge University Press.
Rose, Jeanne.  375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.  Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd., 1999
Rose, Jeanne.  The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  San Francisco, California:
Herbal Studies Course/ Jeanne Rose & Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1992

owner of Prima Fleur in her favorite environment - Nature
Marianne Griffeth in her favorite environment ~ Nature

This article is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.

Safety Precautions


CLEMENTINE – fruit & scent

The warm sparkling bright citrus oils, including the lovely Clementine, have great value in diffuser blends to cleanse the room air and refresh the senses. They are often very calming, soothing and relaxing. You can use Clementine oils as part of a Massage oil, Bath oil, or Skin conditioner.

CLEMENTINE ~ a Variety of Mandarin – Uses

By Jeanne Rose

A photo of Clementine oil showing color and clarity with some fruit Clementine


All Clementines are Mandarins, but not all Mandarins are Clementines.

Clementine Introduction ~ The citrus is so beautiful and so healthful for eating, and Clementine is just delicious. The cold-pressed oil has a serious sweetness and bright happiness that makes it super in blends for mental health.

Clementine. LATIN BINOMIAL AND NAMING ~ Citrus x aurantium forma Clementine

            Yes, the first two words are the same exact name as is used for Orange and Grapefruit and Bitter Orange-Neroli. But there are strict rules on naming and citrus has been examined and analyzed for parentage for quite some time. In the past it was called Citrus aurantium, C. aurantium var. clementine and other names with the  ‘C’ always meaning Citrus.

            Citrus taxonomy  is confusing and often inconsistent. They are all named with common names and with scientific binomials using Latin grammar rules. Citrus often have the same parentage but have different names or body shapes or formae often based on terroir (such as Mandarin in Italy and Tangerine in the USA).

Other Names and background ~ Clementine is also called tangor which is a hybrid between Mandarin and sweet Orange. Names include clementine (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis var. Clementine), Citrus clementine Hort. ex Tan. 

Family ~ Rutaceae

Countries of Origin ~ Clementine originated in either Algeria or China and are now grown in California and Florida, Morocco, Spain, Italy, and China.

Endangered ~ Clementine is itself not necessarily endangered, but it is worrisome for growers because they do not want the flowering crop to be pollinated by bees that have been in other groves.  They often net the trees during the pollination period so that the crop  will not become another variety due to cross pollination.

CLEMENTINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF PLANT HABITAT AND GROWTH ~ Clementine is a hybrid and a  winter hardy type of mandarin that can be grown outdoors in Florida and do well in a container. Today, the easy-peel form called Clementine was created by Pierre Clément in a lucky crossing experiment around 1900 when he was a leader of the agricultural school in Oran in Algeria.1 They are harvested from February to April depending on the area.

            Flavedo- Citrus essential oils are cold-pressed from the peel which contain the oil sacs or glands located irregularly in the outer mesocarp or flavedo of the fruit (Matthews and Braddock 1987). These glands are embedded at different depths in this colored, outer portion of the fruit and must be removed by first rupturing the glands by pressure or mechanical rasping (Matthews and Braddock 1987).

PORTION OF PLANT USED IN EXTRACTION AND YIELD ~ The peel of Clementine is cold-pressed, and yield is best if the fruit is semi-mature, and the plant was bee pollinated. Harvest time has a significant effect on essential oil yield. 

A chart showing the organoleptics of Clementine oil with taste and intensity of odor.
How your senses perceive Clementine oil

            Odor Description ~ Cold-pressed Clementine scent predominates in a powerful citrus, fruity, and floral note, a subsidiary note of green and wood, and with a back note of powder and spice. It is just delicious smelling. The oil can improve in cold storage if kept carefully in a fully filled container in a cool, dark place. The dissolved waxes will settle out and the oil be clear and more soluble.

Chemistry ~ Clementine contains considerable amounts of methyl N-methyl anthranilate, myrcene, linalool,  as well as up to 96% limonene. (GC-MS did not say which limonene was present, but it is most likely the d-limonene or R-limonene). “The limonene structure has a chiral center, and thus it can be found in nature as one of the two enantiomers, the (R)- and (S)-limonene. The R isomer has the characteristic sweet smell of oranges while the S isomer has a smell more like a piney turpentine.”3

Citrus with the same parentage may have different  scent chemistry such as (limonene which has a chiral difference — both a left turning molecule, (S) for sinistral with  the sour smell of Lemon and a right turning molecule, (R) for right hand or clockwise, the sweet smell of Oranges). This is the reason we all as lovers of essential oils and aromatherapy need to learn some chemistry along with good taxonomy.     

Clementine also contains p‐synephrine, an example of a non‐stimulant thermogenic agent as well as a natural decongestant.


Soothing, relaxing, toning, slightly antiseptic, and refreshing to the senses.

Blending Clementine for Purpose ~ The warm sparkling bright citrus oils, including the lovely Clementine, have great value in diffuser blends to cleanse the room air and refresh the senses. They are often very calming, soothing and relaxing. Mandarin, Tangerine and Clementine will blend well with all other citrus, and can feminize chypre blends, warm-up woody blends and work to brighten any floral blend.

            Use Clementine as part of a Massage oil, Bath oil, or Skin conditioner. The cold-pressed oil is used in shampoo, and massage oil,  to brighten the scent. In skincare it is added to help with oily skin, and for sensitive skin; the scent improves the mood and lifts the spirit and used in a carrier oil of your choice as a skin toner (just add enough Clementine oil to very lightly scent the toner).

Sweet Smell of Happiness

Here is a good blend for diffusing in your home.

10 drops each of Neroli of Tunisia,

10 drops yellow Mandarin, and 10 drops of red Mandarin,

And  especially at least 10 drops of Clementine,

Plus 7-10 drops of Mace (Nutmeg is too strong).

Succuss, and either add enough alcohol to make it 25% for a room spray

 or add to 1-oz of carrier oil and use for massage

or put straight into the diffuser to make your home a happy place.


Herbal ~ The peel can be used in healing salves where it lends a refreshing scent and acts as an antioxidant. It is also used in potpourri as well as pressed and dried and used to make ‘boxes’ for trinkets.

showing a container made of citrus skin
a box made of citrus skin

Culinary ~ Delicious, when eaten out of hand. As with any citrus, they contain antioxidants including vitamin C and this helps with fiber intake, and health as well as improving  one’s appearance. The juice contains p-synephrine which is a natural decongestant.

>Note ~ A 2017 study indicated that clementine phytochemicals (methyl anthranilate) may interact with drugs in a manner similar to those of grapefruit.

Clementine Interesting Information ~ Clementine was studied at the Citrus Research Center (now part of the University of California, Riverside) as early as 1909. Clementine’s lose their desirable seedless characteristic when they are cross-pollinated with other fruit. In 2006, to prevent this, growers such as Paramount Citrus in California threatened to sue local beekeepers to keep bees away from their crops. In Morocco ‘further experiments confirmed the fact that the seedless condition is the result of self-pollination. The presence of bees to effect pollination is necessary if a good yield is to be maintained.”2

                  Clementine, Citrus x reticulata, is used as a stocking stuffer during the Christmas holiday, and is one of the smallest members of the citrus. The Clementine  is honey-sweet, and seedless, and is a subgroup of the Tangerine with a thin skin that is very easy to peel.

            Clementine developed as a spontaneous citrus hybrid in Algeria, in the garden of an orphanage of a French missionary in the very early 1900’s.

Key Uses ~ The Oil of Diffusion©

Olsen Ranch Clementine & Prima Fleur oil




2. A further contribution to the study of the Clementine in Morocco. Foreign Title : Nouvelle contribution á l’étude du Clémentinier au Maroc. author(s) : Lacarelle, A. ;  Miedzykzecki, Ch.. Book : Terre marocaine 1937 pp.22 pp.
3. Hubert Marceau who is at www.phytochemia.com

This work is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.


Cautions and Precautions to remember with plants and their parts.
Precautions to Remember
the symbol of wafting


The ancient Rose, first among the flowers, has been the most treasured throughout history. It is used today for both skincare and medicine; the oil in perfumery, and all parts of the herb in products.

a scattering of beautiful pink Roses, ready for distillation, Rosa damascena.
1. The Bulgarian Rose, Rosa damascena

ROSE – Absolute and Uses

By Jeanne Rose

Can I say, I love the  species Rose that produce blooms only once a year, the most beautiful and treasured of buds, so highly sought after for scent, for medicine, for skincare, and for love.

Rose COMMON NAME/LATIN BINOMIAL ~. The Rosa centifolia or R. damascena is the traditional rose used for blending and perfumery while the Rosa gallica or Apothecary Rose is the traditional rose used for medicine and for therapy. There are dozens of iterations of the common name for Rose.  These include the beach rose, the French or Apothecary rose (Rosa gallica), the dogrose (Rosa canina), tea rose, moss rose (Rosa moschata), and many more. Roses are used for blending, perfumery and in medicine.

_______Other Names and background ~ Queen of the Flowers and the name Rose was probably taken from the Greeks. Some other important roses are Rosa alba (Rosa damascena alba) – White Rose;  Bourbon Rose, R. x bourboniana (Edouard Rose); Rosa x centifolia – Cabbage Provence rose or Rose de Mai (confused with the Kazanlik); and Rosa damascena (Rosa damascena forma trigintipetala or Kazanlik Rose. Rose essential oil is called rose otto or attar of rose.

_______Family ~ Rosaceae

COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN FOR ROSE ABSOLUTE ~ Bulgaria, India, Syria, Morocco, Iran, and more.

ENDANGERED ~ Some Rose varieties, types and cultivars are endangered. Some are extinct. However, the genus itself is not endangered and some species are not endangered. Species Roses are grown for scent and often hard to find, while the 35,000 or more varieties are grown as ornamentals and for their looks.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF Rose PLANT HABITAT AND GROWTH ~ Human breeders of rose varieties  have tampered and toyed with the Roses to make them bigger, have more colors, and bloom more often. However, this reduces the number of  odor molecules, and thus newer varieties have less to no fragrance.

Do not be confused by pictures of Roses that any company uses when they discuss Rose oil; they are mostly showing you pictures of recent varietals rather than the ancient and true essential oil species Roses.

Rose is a woody perennial flowering plant with a need of sun to produce its lovely odor.

Marianne Griffeth of PrimaFleur.com in a field of Roses, 2009. Photo by Jeanne Rose
M. Griffeth of Prima Fleur in a Rose field, 2009 • photo by JeanneRose

Rose – PORTION OF PLANT USED IN EXTRACTION AND YIELDS ~ The only Roses that are grown for perfumery and medicinal uses are the species Roses. These include Rosa centifolia, R. damascena, R. borboniana and some R. alba. Whole Roses and/or petals only are the only parts used in the hydro/steam-distilation and solvent extraction. Flowers can also be treated by maceration with hot fat (not oil) and will give the Pomades and Extraits de Rose. The essential oil content of the rose petals collected in cool season is higher than that of the petals collected in warmer season. Distillation is better and more productive in the morning, at 5 am than it is 12 hours later at 5 pm.3

            Yield of Rose absolute via solvent extraction Rose absolute yields 20-25% essential oil. But its essential oil composition is different from rose oil and also from concrete.3

Yield of Rose oil via hydro/steam distillation – varies: 0.12% +. Some 3000 parts of flowers yields only one part of oil. 1 kg rose oil can be obtained from 3000-4000 kg of rose petals. So, the rose oil yield is up to about 0.03-0.04%.

Two samples of Rose absolute showing color and sitting on tope of Nadim A. Shaath lovely book, Healing Civilizations.
Prima Fleur Botanicals, Rose absolute on the lovely book, Nadim A. Shaath lovely book Healing Civilizations.


 Rose absolute #302Rose absolute #355Rose steam-distilled
ColorDeep redDeep redVery pale yellow
ViscositySemi-viscousSemi-viscousViscous-crystalline when cool
Intensity of OdorDepends on terroir, 3-4Depends on terroir, 43-4
Tenacity in a BlendAlways adds the unexpectedAlways adds the unexpectedUse personally, not for perfume
Description of sensory aspects of 3 Rose samples

ROSE ABSOLUTE SCENT DESCRIPTIONS ~ Rose scent is best experienced in true Species roses and in the essential oil and absolutes made from them. Scent is also dependent upon terroir, how the Rose is grown. The business of breeding flowers with a long shelf life has often meant that there is a “steep decline in floral scents: in part because volatile and pigment molecules share biochemical resources, so that more color means less scent, in part because some scent volatiles are also plant hormones that shorten vase life.”1

                  Rose oil and absolute is very complex because it has dozens of components.  It can be described as being very floral, with a green and woody subsidiary note and spicey and sometimes fruity back note.


ROSE History ~ Rosa x centifolia is a descendent of the Rosa damascena which in itself was a natural hybridization of several species native to the Middle East and Europe and it and Rosa centifolia are the main roses used for blending and perfumery.  Harold McGee in his wonderful book, Nose Dive, states that the damask rose is a combination of the Gallic Rose (Rosa gallica), the musk rose (Rosa moschata) and another, an Asian species.1

Rose was distilled in Morocco and by the Berbers 1300 years ago.The Rosewater was regenerative in skincare and used in food – both to perfume and for taste.

One open bloom of Rosa centifolia
Rosa centifolia – JeanneRose photo


Rose absolute CHEMISTRY AND COMPONENTS ~ The components in the solvent extracts, concretes, and essential oil are somewhat different.  Here we speak of the solvent extracted absolutes.  The main components are as follows2:

75% phenyl ethanol – a floral odor that attracts bees and repels ants
5% citronellol – rosy scented
3% geraniol – rosy scented
3 + % linalool – a floral odor that attracts bees and repels ants
2.5% nerol – rosy scented


GENERAL PROPERTIES of the Rose oil and herb

The general properties of the Rose oil and extracts are analgesic, antibacterial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitussive, slightly astringent, hypnotic, tonic, and the herb tea is a mild laxative.

Applications in Skincare ~ Rose oil and absolute are used for all skin, particularly dry skin or aged skin. Any blend that you make and use on the face will reduce tension and stress in the skin and relax and smooth out wrinkles.

Creamy Rose Lotion for all types of skin.
Step 1. 1-ounce rose hydrosol (or distilled water if you have no hydrosol)
1-ounce Sunflower oil or Jojoba oil or a combination
½ ounce Shea butter 
¼ teaspoon Rose wax or another flower wax
Warm, and melt gently all together in a very small pot.
Step 2. Make your synergy of oils and absolutes and success the mixture
Rose Geranium oil – 6 drops
Rose absolute oil –8 drops
2 drops – Vetivert
Step 3. Add the synergy to the warm oil, wax, and butter, stir gently until integrated.
Step 4. Pour into container, shake or stir until cool
Step 5. Apply twice a day after cleansing.

BLENDING Rose FOR PURPOSE AND PERFUMERY ~ Rose oil and absolute has a unique ability to blend well with anything. It works well with woods, citrus, florals, spices, resins and the Mediterranean herbal blends and in most perfumes. Add it you’re your synergy, drop-by-drop until you achieve the scent you like.  Try a Millefeuille Perfume of all florals, such as, tuberose, jasmine, rose geranium, lavender, with the green Violet leaf and with especially Atlas Cedar and Sandalwood.

Rose INHALATION AND DIFFUSION ~ Are you feeling very stressed and overcome with the events of the day? Take out that bottle of Rose absolute and inhale away.  It is soothing to the heart and relaxing to the body.  After a few seconds you will be smiling and relaxed.  Rose has many purposes; both old and new. The absolute, and concrete is best for perfumery while the attar or otto is best for internal uses.

RITUAL USE ~ Rose oil either inhaled or applied to the forehead relieves headache and stress, and it makes you feel better soothing any shock or grief. Rose oil has a history of positive use in rituals for pain and a source of spiritual love and of joy and happiness. There are many ways to use the ancient Rose scent.

HERBAL Rose ~ There is almost nothing more relaxing than a rose petal bath.  Just pick the petals and strew in the hot water. The heat extracts the fragrance and the smoothing emollient quality of the petals to cleanse and soothe the skin. 

Rose petal tea with honey  is a slight laxative especially useful to give to children as it is tasty. And Rosehips are loaded with vitamin C and are a tasty tea when they are available or dried and saved.

Rosehips on a bush, the fruiting part after flowering, used in tea. Photo by JeanneRose 2011
Rosehips • 8/31/11 JeanneRose photo

INGESTION/CULINARY USE OF THE HERB Rose. First of all, do not take the absolute internally as it is solvent-extracted.  You can take a drop of the otto for emotional care –  is good for the mind and heart. Remember it is the species Roses you want to become familiar with and not the low-scented varietals.


HYDROSOL OF ROSE ~ ROSEWATER ~ Rosewater has unlimited potential to improve any skincare product –  add to any cream, lotion, tonic, moisturizer, bath, and more. Add it to foodstuff, beverage, cocktail. It is always soothing. It can be used with Seaweed extract and Rosemary herb for a true AntiAging elixir. it is anti-aging and actually good for your skin and in foods it is tasty. Try it. Read any of my (Jeanne Rose) books for many more uses.

Key Use ~ Perfumery & skin care. Oil of the Heart©.

Safety Precautions ~ None known. Non-toxic. Non-irritant.

This work is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.

Art nouveau vase with two bottles of Rose absolute in front.
Vase with PrimaFleur Rose Absolutes


1.McGee, Harold. Nose Dive – A Field Guide to the World’s Smells. Penguin Press. 2020

2.Shaath PhD, Nadim A. Healing Civilizations, The search for Therapeutic Essential Oils & Nutrients. Cameron + Company, Petaluma, CA. 2017

3. OIL-BEARING ROSE (Rosa damascena Mill.) CULTIVATION AND ROSE OIL INDUSTRY IN TURKEY* (*published in Euro Cosmetics 14 (6):13-17, 2006)


Rose, Jeanne. The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations. Available jeannerose.net/books.html


Cautions to remember
Safety Precautions


Turmeric CO2 extract is used both in skincare and healthcare formulations as an anti-inflammatory and antiseptic. The rhizome is a historically well-known food and medicine used for thousands of years in India and has been recently recognized in Western medicine for its wide range of beneficial effects.

TURMERIC – Uses of the herb and the extract

By Jeanne Rose

Turmeric Latin Binomial ~ Curcuma longa L ,

         Family – Zingiberaceae

          Naming ~ Turmeric has also been called Curcuma domestica, ‘Indian Saffron’, and also known as tumeric or curcumin.

Countries of Origin:  Native to Europe and Siberia and naturalized worldwide.

Endangered ~ Turmeric is considered to be an endangered medicinal plant.

General Description of Plant habitat and Growth ~ Botany: Turmeric is an herbaceous perennial plant whose rhizome (an underground stem that grows horizontally) is collected, dried and used as the spice. It needs a hot, moist climate and in India is harvested from December to March. The rhizome is boiled and then let to dry. The rough skins are removed, and it is then ground to make a fine rich yellow turmeric powder. Turmeric is natural preservative.

Turmeric portion of the plant used in distillation, how distilled, extraction methods & yield ~ Turmeric rhizome is semi-dried or steamed, peeled, comminuted, and then hydro/steam-distilled for the essential oil. Turmeric rhizome is dried and crushed to be solvent extracted.

Yield ~ solvent-free supercritical CO2 extraction of dried crushed rhizomes had a higher yield than the essential oil yield of  2.1-2.48%.


Organopeptics of Turmeric describing the color, clarity, viscosity, taste, intensity and tenacity of the CO2.
Organoleptics of Turmeric CO2

Odor Description ~ The carbon dioxide extract of Turmeric is softly fragrant with a spicy, somewhat floral and slight woody odor.


Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and preservative for the food industry. food colorant, and fabric dye.

Skincare/Cosmetic Use of  Turmeric oil/Extract ~ Use Turmeric CO2 as an antiseptic and anti-inflammatory and use either oil or extract for blackheads and good skin tone. Make a paste of  a pinch of Turmeric powder, a drop of the extract, some drops of lemon juice and apply this paste on face. Keep until it dry. Daily use definitely improves skin tone as well as helps to remove blackheads. Spray after with hydrosol or a Turmeric toner.

            The mixture of equal parts of Lavender oil and Turmeric extract works well as an application for blackheads or in lotion as a toner.

Turmeric Physical Uses & Herbal Use of Turmeric How used ~ Turmeric is used as an herbal extract, CO2 extract in blending, the herb as a food item or to flavor food, and a colorant. The CO2 can be used in essential oil blends to help as an anti-inflammatory while the herb or herbal extract is taken as a supplement.

         Turmeric Herb Therapeutic Uses ~ Science News wrote several bits of information about Turmeric in 2007. See 172-167; 172- 37; 172-13; 171-301. It appears to help prevent, and possibly treat, Alzheimer’s disease. Another study showed that a gene that is active in the brain offered one clue to why emotional stress seems to increase the likelihood of getting Alzheimer’s disease. “The US National Institutes of Health is supervising several clinical trials studying curcumin as a treatment for pancreatic cancer, multiple myeloma, Alzheimer’s dementia, and colorectal cancer.”2

Culinary ~ Turmeric is a food and spice. It is commonly used in curries and South Asian cuisine. It is a significant ingredient in most curry powders. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared foods such as canned chicken, mustards, meats, vegetable broth, and other foods (often as a cheaper replacement for saffron). The taste is most interesting and changes with the other ingredients used.

Turmeric CO2 over a picture of the ground-up Turmeric root
Prima Fleur Botanical Turmeric on top of Nadim A. Shaath lovely book,
Healing Civilizations.

Hydrosol of  Turmeric. I have never personally used this hydrosol, but I did search and found this quote, Turmeric is highly responsive to the season it’s harvested in. … This shows us how turmeric hydrosol can help us adapt to change—both in the environment, and in our lives. … It can soothe distressing issues and ground us in steady health.”4

Emotional/Energetic Uses (AP or IN): Food prepared with Turmeric is considered uplifting and may ease depression. Try the CO2 or steam-distilled oil with Lavender,  Clary Sage and/or Cistus as an inhalation.

It blends well with Lavender for a soothing inhalation.

         Turmeric extract with Blood Orange and Bergamot EO is uplifting, and bright. See Mojave Mirage Blend in  PrimaFleur blends for other uses.

Turmeric Formula for Aching Shoulders & More

20 drops of Turmeric CO2

20 drops of fine Lavender

40 drops of carrier oil

Mix all together and use for aching shoulders.  This is mildly pain-relieving

And anti-inflammatory. The mixture can also be used in skincare

formulas for toning, skin eruptions and as a skin soother.

Blending for Purpose with Turmeric ~ Turmeric in Perfumery:
Turmeric is a very unusual addition to blends and perfumes. It is exotic and a heart note that can be used in Chypre blends with Oakmoss and Labdanum as well as florals such as Clary Sage, Rose, Tuberose, Ylang-ylang, and Cistus, Hedychium (ginger lily), Saffron, spices and more. You can try it in a fougère as well.

Photo of split root of Turmeric and a bottle of the CO2 showing good color, clarity.

Turmeric Chemistry and Components Chemistry:

Curcumin is the active ingredient in turmeric root that has been shown to have a wide range of therapeutic effects. Curcumin is known for its antitumor, antioxidant, anti-amyloid and anti-inflammatory properties. Flavex reports 70 – 90 % essential oil containing mainly alpha- and beta-turmerone and ar-turmerone; in addition alpha-phellandrene, alpha-zingiberene, sesquiphellandrene. The extract contains only traces of curcumin.3

History ~ In the 13th century, Marco Polo, writing about his travels in China, described Turmeric, “There is also a vegetable that has all the properties of the true saffron, as well as the color, and yet it is not really saffron. It is also used as an ingredient in many dishes.” “Turmeric has a long history of medicinal use in South Asia, mentioned in Sanskrit medical dissertation and widely used in Ayurvedic systems. Susruta’s Ayurvedic Compendium in 250 BC recommends an ointment containing turmeric to relieve the food poison effect.”1

            Turmeric is an ancient remedy.

Key Uses ~ The herb of digestion, the Oil to Soothe Inflammation©.

Contraindications: Turmeric contraindications have not been determined.



2. https://www.alpharnd.com/

3. https://www.flavex.com/produktlisting_detail.php?id=094.005

4. https://www.aromatics.com/products/turmeric-hydrosol


Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog Ltd. 1999

Shaath PhD, Nadim A. Healing Civilizations, The search for Therapeutic Essential Oils & Nutrients. Cameron + Company, Petaluma, CA. 2017

This work is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.




MARJORAM herb has a pleasant odor and the EO has a similar chemistry to Tea Tree oil (terpenine-4-ol); thus has anti-bacterial properties useful in hair and skincare. It is a valuable addition in massage blends to ease muscular aches and pains. Historically the leaves were used as a tea for hysterics and in foods to reduce an overactive sex drive.

a Sweeter cousin to Oregano

By Jeanne Rose

Marjoram plant and 3 types of Marjoram oil • photos by JeanneRose
Marjoram and 3 types of Marjoram oil • photos by JeanneRose

Common Name/Latin binomial ~ Marjoram is officially known as Origanum majorana.

Family ~ Lamiaceae

Marjoram Other Names and background ~ also called pot marjoram, Majorana hortensis (knotted Marjoram), O. majoranoides.
The genus Origanum consists of over 44 species, 6 subspecies, 3 botanical varieties and 18 naturally occurring hybrids, and includes several types of Oregano as well as sweet Marjoram (O. majorana) and dittany of Crete (O. dictamnus). Plants known and used as Marjoram sometimes do not necessarily belong to the genus Origanum, however.

Countries of Origin or Habitats of Marjoram ~ It is indigenous to the Arabian Peninsula and several middle Eastern countries and is thought to have spread to the British Isles during the Middle ages (500-1500 A.D.)

Endangered ~ not endangered

Marjoram General Description of Plant habitat and Growth ~ It is a cold sensitive, aromatic, perennial herb growing to over one foot high, with a downy stem and small, silver-green downy leaves with tiny, pinkish white flowers. Other plants are called Marjoram and even Thyme (make sure you are getting what you want). Marjoram prefers dry slopes and rocky places and in hot area and partial shade. Flower formation depends upon the photoperiod, blue light encourages more compact growth.

PORTION OF PLANT USED IN EXTRACTION AND YIELDS ~ Marjoram is either steam-distilled or carbon dioxide extract. Various methods have various yields.

            Yield ~ 1.8% from the CO2 of the leaves and less from the SD of leaves and flowers. “Essential oil yield of marjoram shoots was 0.12% in the control and 0.10% at 50 mM  ….”2.

Photo of Sweet Marjoram by JeanneRose 2005 in S.F. Botanical Garden
Marjoram in the SF Botanical Garden – photo by JeanneRose 2005

Organoleptics of several Marjoram

 Marjoram #305Marjoram #0147Marjoram CO2 #337
ColorcolorlessSlight yellow tingeYellow-gold
TasteBitter, aromaticVery bitter, aromaticBitter, umami
Tenacity in blend good good best

Marjoram Scent Description ~ Odor is herbaceous, green and woody.  

CO2 is different than the steam-distilled type. The combination of high pressure and low temperatures encourages the plant material to release its aromatic components completely so that the oil has both the herbal as well as aromatic profile and has a stronger, deeper, richer odor with more nuance than the steam-distilled.

Using the Basic 7 format and describing the scent of the three example oils listed.
Using the Basic 7 format and describing the scent of the three example oils listed.

Chemical Components  ~Terpinene-4-ol, alpha-terpineol, alpha-terpinene, cineol, linalool, sabinene, and paracymene. Components ~ “Origanum majorana (marjoram) oil was constituted of hydrocarbons (42.1%), alcohols (24.3%), and phenols (14.2%). Water-distilled essential oils of Origanum majorana L. collected from two localities in Turkey were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Carvacrol (78.27–79.46%) was found to be the major component in both oils.* The Marjoram oil of Reunion Island was found to be rich in terpinen-4-ol (38.4%), cis-sabinene hydrate (15.0%), p-cymene (7.0%) and γ-terpinene (6.9%).”1 Major elements included terpinene-4-ol (Tea tree), gamma-terpinene, cis-sabinene, and sabinene, and others.



Analgesic, antispasmodic, vasodilator, vulnerary, antiseptic, antibiotic, and anti-infectious.

External Application of  Marjoram oil ~ It is a mild external antiseptic with a pleasant scent. The oils of both O. majorana and O. vulgare are used commercially to scent soaps, lotions and colognes. Marjoram is used in skincare lotions and creams for added benefit in toning and firming. It is used in blends for bruises and in massage for muscle spasms and for relaxation.

            External Application of Marjoram CO2 ~Origanum majorana also has medicinal and cosmetic uses, such as in bath oils and sachets to help relieve aches and stiff joints. The COtype is best in skin care as it is gentle but still anti-bacterial

Inhalation of Marjoram oil ~ The oil is Inhaled for dyspnea, colds, bronchitis, respiratory infections, head congestion, circulation, cardiovascular disease, migraine headaches, and some seizures.                

Emotional Uses (AP or IN) ~  Marjoram is used in inhalation blends to reduce tension, anxiety, and  insomnia, for calming, and both herb and oil is used in products or inhaled to reduce feelings of grief (with Frankincense), oppression (with Lavender and Atlas Cedar) , stress and irritability, sighing, and sometimes-overactive sex drive.

Emotional Blend  ~ Calming inner Chatter & Feelings of Oppression
Any amount of each oil, mixed together, and inhaled
Atlas Cedar
Marjoram, Sweet

Properties of the Marjoram Hydrosol ~ The hydrosol of Marjoram is very useful as a spray to clean the home; to take by the teaspoonful  in water for a cold or flu or to ‘head’ one off; to use as a gargle or mouthwash for sore throat; to add to  washing waters as an application to cleanse dirty wounds; and many other applications.

Herbal Uses ~ from Herbs & Things  and other material: Both Oregano and Marjoram have been used in folk medicine to treat colds, coughs, gastrointestinal problems and a variety of other conditions, and several plants in the genus especially those high in the phenol carvacrol have  antibacterial, antifungal and antimicrobial properties.  

       Both of these plants have also been used to make dyes. the leaves and flowers of sweet  Marjoram, O. vulgare and O. onites can be included in potpourris. Marjoram also has medicinal and cosmetic uses, such as in bath oils and sachets to help relieve aches and stiff joints. The dried flowers are used for fragrance in potpourris and perfumes. But Marjoram tends to be better when used fresh.
______Ingestion of Marjoram herb:  The herb tea or herb in products is used as a slight diuretic, digestive, antispasmodic, and carminative for the gut. 

Blending Marjoram for Perfumery or for Purpose ~ As with other herbaceous oils of this family, Marjoram makes lovely blends with Citrus of all kinds, Spices and Woods, and conifers such as Fir and Pine and Rose Geranium, Rosemary and roots such as Vetivert. Use sweet Marjoram in perfumery to a warm herbal note, use the Marjoram CO2 for the more therapeutic blends for massage skincare. Everyone has their favorite uses and mine is in clay facials, hand sanitizers, and cleansing toners or in inhalation blends for sleeping and in massage blends as an anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving palliative.

Culinary ~ Oregano and Marjoram are essential ingredients in Greek, Italian and French cuisine  Flowers have a flavor similar to the leaves and  can be a flavorful and decorative addition to vegetables, salads and other foods. Leaf flavor is usually best before flowers bloom. Marjoram is a popular herb (fresh or dried) for seasoning soups, sauces, salads, stuffing, stews, roasts, vegetables and meats. Fresh leaves do not freeze as well as Oregano leaves. Dried leaves are sometimes added to potpourris.

 Sweet Marjoram  has a mild, sweet flavor that compliments and flavor many foods and especially in poultry seasonings.  Marjoram is more often used in recipes of French or English origin. Its sweeter, milder flavor works in cheese, tomato, bean and egg dishes, salad dressings, seafood sauces, and on poultry.

Key Uses ~ Oil of Pain Relief

3 Marjoram oils on 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols
3 Marjoram Oils on book, 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols

Historical Interest of Marjoram ~   Marjoram also enjoys a long and favorable history. Both the ancient Greeks and Romans would crown bridal couples with wreaths of Marjoram to symbolize love, honor and happiness. Over the years, marjoram has been used as a remedy to aid digestion. Marjoram and Oregano continue to be used as a steam inhalant to clear the sinuses and relieve laryngitis. European singers have been known to preserve their voices with Marjoram tea sweetened with honey. According to herbalist Dodoen, in the 16th century, smelling marjoram “mundifieth (cleanses) the brayne.

References ~
1. Food Chemistry. Volume 66, Issue 2, August 1999, Pages 143-145. Chemical composition of the essential oil of marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) from Reunion Island

2. Salt effects on the growth, mineral nutrition, essential oil yield and composition of marjoram (Origanum majorana) by Olfa Baatour, (and others), Acta Physiologiae Plantarum volume 32, Article number: 45 (2010) 

Bibliography ~
Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols.
Rose, Jeanne. Aromatherapy Course – Home & Family. printing 2015.
Rose,  Jeanne. Herbs &Things. Last Gasp. 2002
Rose, Jeanne. Hydrosols & Aromatic Waters, 2015

This work is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.

Cautions & Precautions for plants and their parts.
Cautions and Precautions
3 bottles of marjoram oil showing color and and product number
Three Marjoram oils


LEMON Peel Oil and Uses

By Jeanne Rose

Showing a photo of Lemon peel oil and the fruit
Lemon Peel Oil and Fruit • Photo by JeanneRose 2-25-21

Synopsis ~ LEMON PEEL OIL and juice contains limonene, citral, and some floral linalool, which gives Lemon Peel its appealing fresh fragrance and the terpenes its tartness. Itis one of the most valuable essential oils and is used in food, perfumery, skincare for oily skin, and for many medicinal purposes.

Common Name/Latin binomial ~ Citrus x limon (L.) Osb or Lemon tree or Lemon oil. There are strict rules on naming and citrus has been examined and analyzed for parentage for quite some time. Citrus taxonomy is confusing and often inconsistent. They are all named with common names,  scientific names called Latin binomials based on Latin grammar and not necessarily with Latinized words.

Family ~ Rutaceae

Other Names and background ~ There are at least 25 varieties of the Lemon and it often uses the name Citrus limon as well as several old and new names. Some varieties are Bearss, Eureka, Lisbon, Meyer, and Verna Lemon.

Farmers Market photo of two types of Lemon
2 kinds of Lemon • Eureka and MeyerSF Farmers Market – 2019

Countries of Origin ~ Lemon oil is obtained from several countries and Prima Fleur #0086 is from the USA. The tree was native to SE Asia, mainly India.

Endangered ~ Not currently.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF PLANT HABITAT AND GROWTH ~ Lemon trees are cold- sensitive. Grow in warmth or full sun or the south side of a house. They need well-drained soil, slightly acidic. They can be grown from seed or cuttings.  When I lived in Florida, our citrus tree had many varieties layered upon one trunk and we had oranges, lemons,  and grapefruits from one tree. The fragrance of the blossoms was delightful.

PORTION OF PLANT USED IN EXTRACTION AND YIELDS ~ Lemon peel is either cold-pressed or steam-distilled. Various methods have various yields.

            Yield ~ 0.6-0.8% from the cold expression of the fresh fruit peel.   


Colorcolorless to pale yellow for steam-distilled oil and yellow when  cold-pressed (#086)
Intensity of Odor2-3 for cold-expressed and 1 for steam-distilled (on a scale of 1-10)
Tastebitter and sour
Tenacity in a BlendLemon peel adds freshness but needs fixatives to hold it in a scent or blend
Organoleptics of Lemon Peel Oil from PrimaFleur Botanicals

Chemistry and Components ~ The varieties of Lemon often have the same parentage but have different physiologic forms or formae often based on terroir (such as Mandarin in Italy and Tangerine from Tangiers) or scent chemistry such as limonene which has a chiral difference — both a left-turning molecule, (S) for sinistral with the sour smell of Lemon or Bitter Orange and a right-turning molecule, ® for right hand or clockwise or dextral, the sweet smell of Oranges. This is the reason we all as lovers of essential oils and aromatherapy need to learn some chemistry along with good taxonomy.

Interesting/Science/Historical ~ There is a study that confirms that the composition of Lemon essential oil undergoes cyclic variations lasting one year1. And that Lemon fruit on the same tree may both smell differently from each other but also have different chemistry.

Two bottles of Lemon oil plus a yellow paperweight and a perfect yellow Lemon.
Lemon Oil and Lemon fruit – Photo by JeanneRose 2-2021



Lemon peel constitutes a main valuable source of essential oil that is used in foods and for medicinal purpose. It is used by application in skincare, ingested in medicines and used in blends by inhalation.

APPLICATION AND SKINCARE ~ DO NOT APPLY COLD-PRESSED LEMON OIL TO SKIN PRIOR TO SUN EXPOSURE. It may cause photosensitivity. This means it could cause serious skin damage when exposed to the sun such as redness, itching, burns, blisters, and permanent skin discoloration. Steam-distilled Lemon oil does not contain the plant substance (furanocoumarin) that causes photosensitivity.

 Application ~  The essential oil when applied externally is an antibiotic, antiseptic, astringent, insect repellant, and wound healer. Apply  as an astringent antiseptic on some infections, acne, a cleanser for oily skin, on skin sores, small, infected wounds or insect bites.

            Skincare ~ Lemon peel oil can be used in skincare treatments to balance the pH of the skin, by counteracting acidity on its surface and it acts as a very mild natural bleach or lightener on the skin. It can be used to brighten dull skin color and to calm redness, as well as quell the irritation of inflamed skin. Prima Fleur carries several kinds of Lemon peel oil, organically grown and cold-pressed as well as cultivated and cold-pressed.

The conclusion of one scientific study showed that the scavenging action of lemon essential oil could have a practical application for treating human skin against oxidative damage.2

Ingestion: The Lemon peel essential oil should not be taken internally.  The chemistry and scent of essential oil is different than the chemistry and scent of the juice of the Lemon.
Inhalation: Inhale the crisp cheery scent of Lemon oil as a mildly calming  antidepressant due to the cheery scent, or as a mild stimulant, antiseptic, fever-reducer, and depurative for its purifying and detoxifying effects.

Blending for Purpose ~ Lemon peel oil blends very nicely with Bergamot  as a top note in blends and perfumery and then with most florals and woods to complete the blend.

______Diffuse/Diffusion ~ Lemon oil is a good addition to many other oils in your diffusor. It is uplifting, refreshing, and invigorating. For a quiet clear mind, add Rosemary to the Lemon, add sweet Basil or Spearmint to Lemon oil to uplift the spirit, and for a quiet calmness add Lemon oil to Vetivert.

Ritual/Emotional/Energetic Use: Lemon oil is used by inhalation for general fatigue and depression or physical exhaustion. 

 Culinary/Ingestion ~ Drink  Lemon Juice do not use Lemon oil in water. Tiny amounts of Lemon oil can be used as a flavorant in foods.

Herbal ~ Lemon peel, dried or fresh, can be used in baths, facial steaming herbs, most potpourris and herbal mixtures; it is used as decoction for normal to oily hair or in infused vinegar to use as a hair and skin rinse. Diluted Lemon juice can also be used directly on the hair and skin and it acts to reduce the alkalinity of shampoo and to rid the hair of dandruff and the skin of minor irritations.

Lemon and Cucumber Mask
Mash some Cucumber in a mortar, add some Lemon juice, and
Enough Almond meal to make a paste. Apply to face or knees or elbows.
This is mildly astringent and yet soothing.3.
You can also make this mask with Lemon Hydrosol

Hydrosol ~ I have used Lemon Hydrosol from several companies; they were distilled from whole fruit and rind and were each perfect in their own way. The hydrosol is wonderful for slightly oily skin and very soothing and a refreshing tonic for the skin.

Key Use ~ I like to call Lemon oil “the Oil of slimming” as it is effective in blends for this purpose.

2 bottles of Lemon oil showing color difference in different oils from the fruit peel.
Lemon oil

References ~

1.On the genuineness of citrus essential oils. Part X. Research on the composition of essential oils produced from Sicilian lemons using ‘pelatrice’ and ‘sfumatrice’ extractors during the entire 1983/84 production season. A. Cotroneo et al.  March 1986. https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.2730010206

2.Antioxidative action of citrus limonum essential Oil on Skin. Bertuzzi, et al., https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233850718_Antioxidative_Action_of_Citrus_limonum_Essential_Oil_on_Skin

3.Rose, Jeanne • The Herbal Body Book • Frog Books, 2000. http://www.jeannerose.net/books.html

This work is sponsored and supported by Prima Fleur Botanicals.



PATCH TEST:  If applying a new essential oil to your skin always perform a patch test to the inner arm (after you have diluted the EO in a vegetable carrier oil). —Wash an area of your forearm about the size of a quarter and dry carefully. Apply a diluted drop (1 drop EO + 1 drop carrier) to the area. Then apply a loose Band-Aid and wait 24 hours. If there is no reaction, then go ahead and use the oil in your formulas. —The Aromatherapy Book, Applications & Inhalations, p. 64

HYDROSOL — PLEASE NOTE: A true hydrosol should be specifically distilled for the hydrosol, not as a co-product or even a by-product of essential oil distillation. The plant’s cellular water has many components most are lost under pressurized short steam runs for essential oil, or by using dried material. We recommend that the producers specifically distill for a product by using plant material that is fresh.
DO NOT INGEST ESSENTIAL OILS: Although some oils are important flavoring oils in the flavor industry and thus ingested in very small amounts in many foods, especially meats and sausages, it is not a good idea to use them yourself either in capsules or in honey to take internally.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS: Do not apply the essential oil neat, especially to the underarms or delicate parts of the body. Most oils are probably not to be used on babies, children or pregnant women. Many aromatherapist suggest that there are some oils not be used at all. However, as with many plants, essential oil chemistry is subject to change depending on species, chemotype, and terroir.
CONTRAINDICATIONS: Be moderate in your use of any essential oil. A little goes a long way. Remember to choose the herbal use over the essential oil use normally; an herb tea is milder than the essential oil. There are always contraindications for the excessive use of some plants and for their essential oils in both perfumery and aromatherapy.

Moderation in All Things.
Be moderate in your use of essential oils as they are just not sustainable for the environment.
Be selective and more moderate in your usage.
Use the herb first as tea or the infusion. —JeanneRose 2014

DISCLAIMER:  This work is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for accurate diagnosis and treatment by a qualified health care professional. Dosages are often not given, as that is a matter between you and your health care provider. The author is neither a chemist nor a medical doctor.  The content herein is the product of research and personal and practical experience. Institute of Aromatic & Herbal Studies – Jeanne Rose©

Violet — Perfumery

Synopsis – Violet is the flower that we all love has an elusive scent and is used either in perfumery or herbal therapy.……….

Jeanne Rose

Violets shown in the garden from eye level.- photo by Monica Fine 2020
Violets in the Garden – photo by Monica Fine-2020

————The Violet is the flower that we all love and has an elusive scent, used either in aromatherapy or herbal therapy. The scent is difficult to capture in a bottle and does not yield its fragrance to distillation — but to enfleurage and maceration. The herb, Violet flower, and leaf, is also not much used although it is easy to grow and easy to use. People have forgotten about it.

Viola odorata of the Family Violaceae

            HISTORY OF THE VIOLET ~  In mythology the Violet arose from the blood of a nymph who was pursued by Apollo. Diana changed her into a flower to escape his importunities.

            True violets have been cultivated for centuries, with the earliest known use of the flowers dating back to Ancient Greece in 500 B.C., if not earlier. The Greeks used Violets in their wines, foods and medicines, and they actually loved this flower so much that it became the symbol of Athens.”3

            The variety that produces the most captured scent is the Parma and unlike other Violet species, Parma’s are unknown in the wild. Violets are not hardy in cold-weather and because of this experts have speculated that they may have originated in warmer latitudes. Recent testing suggests that the Parma’s might be descended from Viola alba, a species native to central Europe and the Mediterranean.

Wherever the Violet began, they eventually migrated to Naples, Italy. Sometime prior to  1880 a nobleman, Count Filippo di Brazza Savorgnan, began breeding them at his home near Udine in northeastern Italy. His efforts led to the Conte di Brazza violet, introduced in 1880 and still available today. The count, who was passionate about Violets, also produced other popular hybrids.
________Parma violets and their fragrant, single-flowered relative, Viola odorata, had their heyday from about 1870 through World War I. Many new varieties, often sports (or natural mutations) of older ones, appeared on the market.
_____The Meaning of the Flower • The violet, the traditional Valentine’s Day flower, celebrates modesty, virtue, faithfulness, humility and possible happiness.   According to legend, the Christian priest St. Valentine wrote love notes using ink made from the violets he grew.

            VIOLETS GROWING – Parma violets (Viola odorata DUCHESS DE PARMA) are beautiful, relatively easy to grow, and, most of all, fragrant. Much more loved about a hundred years ago, they fell out of fashion early in the 20th century when their beauty was outshone by flowers both bigger and more vulgar and  showier. Now again interest in heirloom plants is on the rise, and it is time for these delicate, elegant, beautiful violets to take center stage once more and for people to learn how to grow and use them for their scent.
_____Plant them anytime, especially spring. They are tolerant of shade and sun, and most soil types but do prefer moist, well-drained soil that is rich in organic matter. My violets seem fine, in a  sunny area, that is 3 inches deep in dolomite rocks. In the garden to obtain more flowers in the Spring, mow down the patch in the Fall.  Your Violet patch will look like a scraggly lawn, but you will be pleased by the number of flowers that you can pick in the Spring.



TO EXTRACT THE VIOLET’S ODOR AT HOME ~ This is the way to make a “Fragrant Tincture”. You will need patience and lots of Violet flowers, but the end result will be pleasing and therapeutic for your soul and psyche.  Fill a small jar with Violet flowers and then cover the flowers with pure* alcohol. [150˚ vodka may work]. The alcohol will extract both the color and the odor of the flowers.  When no more color is in the flowers, strain out the flowers and add new flowers to the alcohol or you may just pour the alcohol onto a new batch of flowers in another jar.  You will have to repeat this procedure over and over again using the same alcohol and new flowers until the alcohol is a deep violet color and has the odor of the flowers.  This will take an entire season.  At this time store the alcohol in the refrigerator. This is not the same as the therapeutic tincture described below.

READ Natural Perfumery by Jeanne Rose

            Enfleurage is not much employed as a means of extracting this delicious odor because people do not know how to do it correctly.  It is said that in the early part of this century, that a Russian Empress would only use the scent of Violet and only those Violets that had been picked in the early morning hours in the most highly regarded fields of Grasse.  These Violets were then quickly taken to the still-room where they were treated over the course of the flowering season by enfleurage to produce the thick odorous fat and this was then washed with pure high-proof alcohol. 

            Concrète is made of both flower and leaves, mostly leaves and this is washed in alcohol to obtain the fragrance material.  This is very difficult to make at home. The commercial Violet leaf absolute is a deep green-colored, green-smelling, sweet-green-scented scent of the leaf.  Neither the little produced Violet flower alcohol-wash at $100,000 per kilo nor the leaf absolute has yet found a use in aromatherapy.  It is just too expensive.  So, if you go to a store and find Violet perfume or Violet-scented soap, please note that it is a fake and synthesized version of this most fabulous of odors.  Do you have a garden?  Only with a garden and the knowledge of the ancient alchemists can you extract scent from this purple beauty to make a sweet violet-colored scent. 

            Violet Tincture is made using freshly-picked flowers, flowers that were picked in the early morning when the dew is dry and the sun not yet high — when the scent is at its strongest. This is the way to make a “Therapeutic Tincture”. Get a small wide-mouth jar and pack it full of freshly picked Violet flowers in full-bloom and with high scent.  Add just enough 95% neutral grape spirits to just cover the flowers.  Wait a bit as you may need to add more flowers and possibly a bit more grape alcohol. Keep this in a cool dark place for 3-7 days and then strain out the alcohol and place in a bottle, label, and date it for use. This is not the same as the fragrant tincture described above. *(see www.organicalcohol.com).

Small 4 oz. jar of violets infusing in grape spirits to make a therapeutic tincture.
JeanneRose Violet flower therapeutic tincture – 2018

USE THE VIOLET TINCTURE PERFUME ~ Dilute your Violet tincture with a bit of water or oil , so that it is about 70% alcohol, and apply to your body as a lightly scented perfume or to the hands as hand sanitizer.  Another use is to put 1 oz in a 4 oz spray bottle, add 3 oz of spring water and let your husband use this to heal his skin of nicks after shaving.

         Violet Leaf Absolute in Perfumery ~ In May several companies including Robertet harvest hundreds of tons of Violet leaves in the south of France from the Parma violet where they are then processed and extracted with volatile solvents. An absolute is obtained with a wondrous intense green smell.

Robertet Violet Leaf Harvest and Prima Fleur Violet Leaf Absolute
leaves and absolute

            Violet leaf absolute -Viola odorata oil. Used in products or blends for its wonderful ‘green’ scent, Violet leaf absolute is produced from the concrète made of both flower and leaves, mostly leaves and this is washed in alcohol to obtain the fragrance material called the absolute.  This Violet leaf absolute is solvent-extracted in Egypt and is a deep green-colored, green-smelling, sweet-green-scented scent of the leaf.

CHEMISTRY OF VIOLET ~ The Violet flower implacably refuses to surrender its smell. And so, perfumers recreate it: mix 2,6-nonadienal + beta-ionone + dihydro-beta-ionone + alpha-ionone and a few others, and there’s your scent of violet.

Violet Leaf Oil1

             “In the 19th century Viola odorata L. (family Violaceae) began to be used in fine perfumery with the cultivation and solvent extraction of the Parma and Victoria variety of violets. According to Dioscorides, 1st century BC Greek physician, the Violets were important plants used medicinally.  Mainly, the herb and flower are used on the throat (for serious throat conditions); the tea or infusion could be gargled or drunk or compresses could be used on the throat. 
        Victoria violets are grown in the South of France and it takes about 1 ton of Violet leaves to produce 1 kg of the dark green waxy concrete when petroleum ether is used as the solvent.   When the concrete of Violet leaves is processed with ethanol an absolute is obtained that contains about 95% of higher fatty acid esters.  Only about 200-250 kg of Violet leaf absolute is produced per year.
           The flowers are no longer processed via enfleurage or solvent extraction for the fragrant product. In 1904 it cost about $100,000 for 1 kg of Violet Flower oil.  
          Most of the fragrance of Violet Leaf is composed of secondary metabolites of high molecular weight precursors.  The long chain alcohols possess floral notes while the short chain aldehydes contribute to the fatty notes of the substance.  In the flower ß-ionone and other compounds are the main constituents of the odor of the flowers and is very evanescent, disappearing almost as soon as it is smelled.  The Violet leaf green odor, called Violet leaf alcohol is synthesized and used in much perfumery.”
        ‡Violet Notes ~ The famous Vera Violetta by Roger & Gallet from 1892 was the first creative combination of natural Violet leaf and synthetic ionones.2

Parma violet, sweet violet and violet leaves of Viola odorata.


         Hilda Leyel considered Violets to be an anodyne, cordial, cardiac, antiseptic and expectorant and very useful for both the Sense of Hearing and for problems in the throat area.

GENERAL USES ~ Jeanne Rose’s Herbal Body Book describes how to use the flowers . . . Externally, the Violet flower and leaf are used to treat anything near the throat or esoterically anything near the 5th chakra.  Violet leaf has a historical reputation for treating cancers of the mouth and throat.  This is one of the flowers that have been mentioned since the time of the ancient Greeks.  Sweet Violets either fresh or dried are used in teas or baths for the soothing and slightly astringent quality.  Violets contain salicylic acid and are extremely high in vitamins A and C.  Violet flower water (1/4 c. Violets steeped in warm spring water for 30 minutes, strained, bottled and refrigerated) is used on the face as a tonic and healing spray for all sorts of facial afflictions.  “It is wonderful as an after-shave water or even as a wash for baby’s skin.  If the leaves and flowers are macerated in oil, strained and then beeswax added, this cream is excellent as a daily application to remove cosmetics, or can be used daily on your face and hands for dry skin.
         Quantities of Violet flowers can be added to talcum powder to scent it and then later sifted out. The powder is soothing and the scent quite complementary.


an antique DeParma Violet talcum Powder tin (made in Canada)
Old DeParma Violet Talcum Powder tin

MEDICINAL VIOLETS. Yes, there are studies that have been done on Violet medicine and here is one: Viola odorata — A Critical Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology of Viola odorata L. and Related Multipotential Products in Traditional Persian Medicine by Feyzabadi, Ghorbani, Vazani and Zarshenas and published 26 September 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5909
            Both the leaves and the flowers are useful — the flowers made into a syrup to take for a sore throat and to cure a troublesome cough or to use as a ‘cure for rheumatism of the right wrist’.4  

*          *          *

            Sweet Violet flowers and leaves have a gentle expectorant and demulcent action, and they induce light sweating. They are often used as an infusion or syrup for treating coughs, chest colds, and congestion.
        If the leaves and flowers are macerated in oil, strained and then beeswax added, this cream is excellent as a daily application to remove cosmetics, or can be used daily on your face and hands for dry skin.


            Viola odorata The Violet is used to aid memory particularly in a tea with Sage and Rosemary. The leaves and flowers are used as a tea and compress, especially for the throat, and sore throat. The tincture can be taken for sore throat or cough or the flowers made into a syrup to be used both internally  and the leaves as a poultice used externally for the throat or taken as tea. The tea is useful for “headache and vertigo and has been mentioned for hysteria and have specific action on the ears and as a ‘cure’ for otorrhea”.5


            Violet Flower Syrup • Take 3 cups of boiling water and add to ½ lb. of a mixture of fresh and dried flowers in a glass or porcelain pot; leave to infuse in the water for 24-hours. Strain through a silk or muslin cloth. To the strained liquid add a double quantity of sugar. Heat enough to dissolve the sugar. Store in sterile bottles in a dark cabinet or the refrigerator. Take 1 t. 4-6 times per day until the condition is resolved but for no more than 10 days.

A pugil of Violets – photo by JeanneRose2019
A pugil of Violets – photo by JeanneRose2019

Violet Historical Uses – Hilda Leyel & Others

            Cooling Herbs were very important during the 1500 and 1600s, as a cooling medicine, to cool the ‘hot’ blood; a cooling tonic if you will and . Violets was one of the most important.
––––      Violet Vinegar by Francis Bacon.  Take Violets and infuse a good pugil* in a quart of vinegar (probably grape or wine vinegar), let them stand three quarters of an hour and take them forth and repeat the infusion with like quantity of violets seven times and it will make a vinegar so fresh of flower, as it a twelve months after it be brought you in a saucer, you shall smell it before it comes to you.
         Note: It smelleth more perfectly of the flower a good while after than at first.

*pugil is an old form of measurement meaning what you can hold between your thumb and first two fingers; a large pinch; a small handful (see above).

More Violet Herbal Uses ~ In addition to their medicinal uses, the flowers can be eaten in salads . . . boiled, pressed, pounded, and mixed with milk, rice flour, and sugar into a porridge . . . crystallized as beautiful candies . . . added to vinegar to impart color and fragrance . . . made into a rare and delicate jelly . . . and even fermented to produce a sweet wine. Since the blue color is released by infusion, violets have been used to create delicate eyeshadows and fragrant, tinted skin lotions. (A curious feature of the infused color is its property of turning red when in contact with acid, and green when in contact with an alkali. Because of this reaction, it has been used as a substitute for litmus.)

In The Secrets of Flowers as revealed by A. Stoddard Kull, the Violet is a symbol of Faithfulness.  “Some lovely maids of antiquity once became the object of Venus queenly wrath, when a dispute arose whether she or they were more beautiful, Cupid judged in favor of the maidens; and in a fury, Venus beat them until they were blue.  Thus, the girls became the first Violets.”  This is the story as Herrick tells it.

*          *          *

A Violet in the youth of primal nature,
Forward, not permanent, sweet, not lasting,
The perfume and suppliance of a minute;
No more. . . . . . Laertes in Hamlet


SOURCES*: To learn to use the leaves and flowers of the Violet, you may wish to read Jeanne Rose’s Herbal Body Book and The Aromatherapy Book: Applications & Inhalations.  Both are available from Jeanne Rose Aromatherapy and if you mention this article you may receive both books free of shipping charges for $38.00 which is a 10% discount.  Call 415.564.6337 and/or purchase by PayPal.  To purchase the flowers and leaves you may have to try a number of herb mail-order places and these addresses are listed in Chapter VI, the source list of both aforementioned books. The last time I purchased Violets to grow was from Select Seeds in Union, CT 1-800-684-0395 (www.selectseeds.com) and I ordered the Duchesse du Parma in January for Spring delivery.

Violet is for Faithfulness, Which in me shall abide;
Hoping, likewise, that from your heart
You will not let it slide. — the words of Shakespeare

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1.Ohloff, GüntherSCENT AND FRAGRANCES: Springer-Verlag. 1990. Translated by Pickenhagen and Lawrence {this is the main source}
2.Rose, Jeanne. Blending Booklet & Natural Perfumery Booklet.  Spiral Bound www.jeannerose.net/ • 2017
4Leyel, Hilda. Green Medicine. Faber and Faber Limited, London. 1952
5Leyel, Hilda. Cinquefoil. Faber and Faber Limited. London. 1957

Leyel, Hilda. Herbal Delights. Faber and Faber Limited, London. 1937
Rose, Jeanne. Herbs & Things. Last Gasp Press. 2000Spiral bound is Available at New Age Creations, 219 Carl  Street, San Francisco, CA 94117. $28 includes S&H.

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